¼okD;kaps ifjorZu½


   okD;kps ifjorZu ,dk izdkjkrqu nql&;kr dj.;kps vusd izdkj vkgs- change of voice, change of narration izek.ksp [kkyh fnysY;k ek/;ekrqu ns[khy okD; ifjorZu gksÅ 'kdrs-fon;kF;kZauh v'kk izdkjph okD; vH;klk;yk gohr R;kauk ifj{ksr Hkjiqj okD;s ;srkr-rlsp v'kh okD;s okjaokj cksyrkuk okijk-

A) Interchange of Assertive to Exclamatory

B) Interchange of Exclamatory to Assertive

C) Interchange of Negative to Affirmative

D) Interchange of Intrrogative to Assertive

E) Interchange of Simple to complex sentences

    a) 'too' can be transformed into complex sentences

    b) by use of a noun clause

    c) by use of an adjective clause

    d) by use of an adverb caluse

F) Interchange of complex to simple sentence

    a) by substituting a Noun for a Noun clause introducing by 'that'

    b) by substituting a Noun for a Noun clause

    c) by using a participle or an adjective

    d) by using a preposition with its object

    e) by using infinitive

    f) by using compound Noun

    g) by using a prepositional phrase

G) Interchange of Simple to compound sentences.

H) Interchange of compound to Simple sentences.

I) Synthesis / Conjunctions / Co-ordination

   a) Simple to Simple sentences

   b) Simple to Complex sentences

   c) Simple to Compound sentences

J) Use of 'As soon as'

    Use of 'No sooner than'

    Use of 'Hardly…… when'

K) Interchange of use of 'too-to' and 'so…that'

L) Use of 'Unless / If….not

M) Not only…..but also / as well as

N) Able to-can / could, Unable to-can't / couldn't

O) Change the degree

P) Used to 'for habitual past'

Q) Enough (adjective and adverb)

R) Infinitive / Geurnd (verbal noun)

S) Prefer….to

T) Punctuation

U) Let's

V) Neither and either as pronouns                      

W) Get + objective

X) Forming questions                                             

Y) Use Must + have + pp / May + have + pp     

Z) Such + a + adjective + noun / Such + adj + noun                                                                

AA) Use- While

BB) After / before / while / on + ing form of verb

CC) Could + have +pp

DD) Use Many / Much / Some + of

EE) Use 'As'                                                               

FF) Use 'Because'

GG) Use 'That'                                                       

HH) By + ing form of the verb         

II) Modal Auxillaries                                              

JJ) Direct and Indirect speech / Narration

KK) Affixes,Suffixes and prefixes

LL) Figure of speech     

MM So…..that

NN) Use 'though'

OO) Removing- who, which, where, when

PP) Change the voice

QQ) Using only, where as, should, advantage,increase




A) Interchange of Assertive to Exclamatory


(Assertive sentences- fo/kkukFkhZ okD;s @ ljG] lk/ks fo/kku

Exclamatory sentences- mn~xkjkFkhZ okD;s½


• She sings very sweetly. • They are very good. • She is a very good girl.

          ojhy okD;s fo/kkukFkhZ vkgsr- ;k okD;kae/;s sweetly, good vls fo'ks"k.k vkgs- ;k okD;kaps mn~xkjkFkhZ djrkuk vki.kkl very P;k ,soth how fdaok what 'kCn okijkos ykxrhy] mn~xkjkFkhZ okD;s iq<hy izek.ks vkgsr-

• How sweetly she sings! • How good they are! • What a good player he is!

          Eg.ktsp mn~xkjkFkhZ okD;ke/;s how fdaok what us lw:okr djkoh ykxrs- R;kuarj fdz;kfo'ks"k.k fdaok fo'ks"k.k okijrkr- dRkkZ o fdz;kin R;kuarj ?ksrys tkrkr 'ksoVh mn~xkjokpd fpUg ¼!½ |kos ykxrs-

fo/kkukFkhZ okD;kr a very vlk 'kCn vlsy rjp what us lq:okr djk-

• She is very honest girl.→ What an honest girl she is!

• He was a very great man. → What a great man he was!

• He was very ugly.→ How ugly he was!


B) Interchange of Exclamatory to Assertive


• What a nice idea it is! • How beautiful she paints! • How strong these ropes are!

          ojhy loZ okD;s mn~xkjkFkhZ vkgsr R;kaps fo/kkukFkhZ djrkuk [kkyhy cny djkos ykxrkr-

1½ okD; ljG d:u ?;k- 2½ what o how P;k ,soth ^ a very* 'kCn okijk-3½ mn~xkjokpd fpUg ¼!½ dk<wu R;k,soth iq.kZfojke ¼-½ |k- ojhy okD;kaps fo/kkukFkhZ okD;s [kkyhy izek.ks r;kj gksrhy-

• It is a very nice idea. • She paints very beautifully.• These ropes are very strong.

     dkgh okD;kae/;s tj drkZ o fdz;kin 'ksoVh vlsy rj okD;kP;k vFkkZuq:I loZuke ?ksÅu lgk¸;dkjh fdz;kin ;kstkos ykxrs-

► What a beautiful place.

          ;k okD;kP;k 'ksoVh drkZ fdaok fdz;kin ulY;keqGs fo/kkukFkhZ okD; djrkuk vMp.k fuekZ.k gksrs- rj rsFks 'place' ;k 'kCnkP;k vFkkZuq:I 'it is' ;k drkZ o fdz;kinkyk ;kstqu fo/kkukFkhZ okD; fyghrk ;srs-

For example –

1) The book is very interesting.

► How interesting the book is !

2) These noisy – loud speakers are a great nuisance.

► What a great nuisance these noisy loud speakers are !

3) I wish that spring were eternal.

► O that spring were eternal!

4) It is strange that a sailor is afraid of storms.

► A sailor is afraid of storms!

5) You should be ashamed of being so indifferent.

► Ashame on you to be so indifferent!

6) It is very sad that the beloved leader is departed.

► Alhass ! the beloved leader is departed.

C) Interchange of Negative to Affirmative

      dks.krsgh fo/kkukFkhZ gs udkjkFkhZ (negative) fdoak gksdkjkFkhZ (affirmative) vlrs- gs y{kkr Bsok dh udkjkFkhZ okD;s gh usgeh udkjkRed vlrkr vkf.k R;k okD;kae/;s udkjkFkhZ 'kCn tls no, not, never,neither, nor,none, no one, no body etc. vlrkr- gksdkjkFkhZ okD;kae/;s ojhy udkjkFkhZ 'kCn ulrkr-

gksdkjkFkhZ okD;kps udkjkFkhZ okD; djrkuk [kkyhy ckch y{kkr ?;k-

1½ udkjkFkhZ okD; djhr vlrkuk oj mYysf[kr udkjn'kZd 'kCn ?;kos ykxrkr- (no, not)

2½ gksdkjkFkhZ okD;kpk tks dkG vkgs rksp dkG udkjkFkhZ okD;kr jkgrks-

3½ gksdkjkFkhZ okD;kps udkjkFkhZ okD;kr :ikarj djrkuk vFkkZr cny gksr ukgh-

4½ gksdkjkFkhZ okD;kr ts fo'ks"k.ks fnysys vkgs R;kP;kfo:/n Eg.ktsp oj fnysyh udkjkFkhZ 'kCn okijk rlsp fdz;kinkpk dkG cnykok o ;ksX; frFks did does do oki:u uarj not okijkos-

► Shiela was a bright student. (Affirmative)

→ Shiela was not a dull student.(negative)

► I was doubtful whether it was yours. (Affirmative)

→ I was not sure whether it was yours. (negative)

► She disliked the drama. (Affirmative)

→ She did not like the drama. (negative)

► They fail to take note of it. (Affirmative)

→ They do not take note of it. (negative)

► I have always been an optimist. (Affirmative)

→ I have never been a pessimist. (negative)


     ojhy okD;kaP;k vH;klko:u vki.kkl gs y{kkr vkys vlsyp Affirmative

 ps negative djrkuk okD;kpk vFkZ cnyr ukgh-

•udkjkFkhZ okD;kps gksdkjkFkhZ djrkuk [kkyhy ckch y{kkr ?;k-

1½ udkjkFkhZ 'kCn (no, not, never, neither, nor, none, no one, no body) dk<qu Vkdk-

2½ iqoZizR;; (prefixes) tls un,In,I mgs gksdkjkFkhZ djrkuk mi;ksxh iMw 'kdrkr-

3½ brj 'kCn tls always, hardly, little, avoid, keep, aloof ;klkj[ks 'kCn gh gksdkjkFkhZ okD;s cuforkuk mi;ksxh iMw 'kdrkr-


• Study below sentence

1)    He never read them until after her death. (negative)

► He read them only after her death. (Affirmative)

2) I did not make comments. (negative)

► I refrained from making any comment. (Affirmative)

3) Never solve the problems by running away from them. (negative)

► Always solve the problems by facing them. (Affirmative)

4)We never tell lies. (negative)

► We always tell the truth. (Affirmative)

5)  Nobody could fail to notice those large black eyes of her. (negative)

► Everyone easily noticed those large black eyes hers. (Affirmative)

[kkyh dkgh 'kCn fnysyh vkgsr R;k 'kCnkaps udkjkFkhZ djrkuk gks.kkjs cny igk-

Some how – not in any way.                       Ate - eat                   

Some time – rarely / never / don't ever.    Still – any longer

Some extent – at all                                    Great deal - much

Already – yet                                               Long time – long

There  - now                                                A long way - far

Too -  either / very                                      One or other – either

Nothing – anything                                     Something – anything

Every body – Nobody                                Anyone – No one                               

Some where – Any where                         Any - No

Seldom –always                                        Every where – Any where else

Always – rarely, seldom, never.               Saw – did not see

Forget – rememberd                                Retreating – going forward.                    

 External – internal                                    Descrising – increasing                            

Without any delay – Gradually slowly       Devise – united

Agreed – disagreed                                  Interested – uninterested

Hormonises – mismatches                       Hates – likes

Pleased – displeased / unhappy              Encouraged – discouraged

May – maynot                                             Can – cannot

Can be – can't be                                       Need – need not

Will – won't/ will not                                    Accept - Reject



D) Interchange of Intrrogative to Assertive

iz'ukFkZd okD;kps (verbal question/yes-no type questions)

• fo/kkukFkhZ okD;s djrkuk [kkyhy cny djkosr-

1½ iz'ukFkZd okD;kpk vFkZ y{kkr ?;k-

2½ iz'ukFkZd okD; gksdkjkFkhZ vlsy rj fo/kkukFkhZ okD; udkjkFkhZ djk-

3½ iz'ukFkZd okD; udkjkFkhZ vlsy rj fo/kkukFkhZ okD; gksdkjkFkhZ djk-

4½ okD;kP;k vFkkZizek.ks okD;kl ljG fo/kkuke/;s cnyk-

• Study below sentence

1) Can he sing a song?

► He cannot sing a song.

2) Is he not imitating the leader?

► He is imitating the leader.

E) Interchange of Simple to complex sentences


Sentences are classified in to:

1) Simple sentence- lk/ks okD;

2) complex sentence- feJ okD;

3) Compound sentence- la;qDr okD;


1) Simple sentence- lk/ks okD;  

    Contains only one finite verb . It has one subject and predicate. ;k okD;ke/;s ,dp eq[; fdz;kin o ,dp fo/ks; vlrs-

2) complex sentence- feJ okD;

      It contains one principal clause and one or more than one subordinate clauses. ¼;k feJ okD;kr nksu @ R;kis{kk tkLr okD;ka'k vlrkr- ;kiSdh ,d okD;ka'k gk eq[; (principal or main clause) rj nqljk okD;ka'k gk xkS.k (sub-ordinate clause) vlrks- ;k okD;kyk cuforkuk th mHk;kUo;h vO;;s okijrkr- R;kaauk sub-ordinate vls Eg.krkr-R;kiSdh wh lq: gks.kkjh mHk;kUo;h vO;;s [kkyhy vkgsr-(when, where, why, what, how, which) oxSjs- brj vO;;s (that, though, until, after, before) b- vkgsr-


3) Compound sentence- la;qDr okD;

      It has more than one independent clauses.

                   la;qDr okD;ke/;s (compound sentence) nksu fdaok R;kis{kk tkLr okD; vlrkr- gh okD; R;kapk m|s'k o fo/ks;klg mHk;kUo;h vO;;kauh (co-ordinators) uh tksMyh tkrkr- And, but, or oxSjs vO;;s vkgsr-

a) 'too' can be transformed into complex sentences


* conversion of simple sentences into complex sentences.

A simple sentence containing 'too' can be transformed into a complex sentence as follows.

too P;k ,soth so that not pk mi;ksx d:u

1) The news is too good to be true.

► The news is so good that it cannot be true.

2) He is too honest to accept a bribe.

► He is so honest that he cannot accept a bribe.

3) He was too weak to run fast.

► He was so weak that he could not run fast.


b) by use of a noun clause ¼uke okD;kpk mi;ksx d:u½

1) Simple :- He confessed his crime.

   Complex:- He confessed that he had committed a crime.

2) Simple :- He told me his name.

   Complex:- He told me what his name was.

      'That he had committed a crime' is a Noun clause, object of the verb 'confessed'. 'What his name was' is a Noun clause object of the verb 'told'.


c) by use of an adjective clause  fo'ks"k.k miokD;kpk mi;ksx d:u

1) simple :- He purchased his uncle's library.

   Complex:- He purchased the library which belonged to his uncle.

2) Simple :- Prudent boys work hard.

   Complex :- Boys, who are prudent, work hard.

' which belonged to his uncle' and ''who are prudent' are adjective clauses qualifying respective nouns.


d) by use of an adverb caluse ¼fdz;kfo'ks"k.k miokD;kpk mi;ksx d:u½

1) Simple:- On my arrival they left the hall.

    Complex:- They left the hall when I arrived.

2) Simple:- He owed his success to his father.

   Complex:- It was owing to his father that he succeeded.

3) Simple:- We reached the station after the departure of the train.

   Complex:- We reached the station after the train had departed.


* Turn the following simple sentences into complex  sentences.

1) They can stand on the saddle of pony in full gallop.

► They can stand on the saddle of pony that is in full gallop.

2) They told the young man to take away the bones.

► They told the young man that he should take away the bones.

3) It was a quiet place set in the midst of trees.

►) It was a quiet place which was set in the midst of trees.

4) On the way back, they stopped at the village post office.

► While they were coming back,They stopped at the village post office.

5) Some adventurous boys creep silently out of their homes.

► Some boys, who are adventurous, creep silently out of their homes.

6) At the end of the game there was the danger.

► When the game ended there was the danger.

7) I was too small to defend my golis.

► I was so small that I could not defend my golis.

8) On the day of the match the two teams were lined up before the start.

► On the day of the match the two teams were lined up before the match the start.

9) I will tell you the other condition.

► I will tell you what the other condition is.

10) But the stench from the rotting bone and flesh was unbearable.

► But the stench that came from the rotting bone and flesh was unbearable.


F) Interchange of complex to simple sentence

¼feJ okD;kps lk/;k okD;kr :ikarj½

     A complex sentence can be converted into a simple sentence in the following ways:- complex sentence pas :ikarj [kkyhy izdkjs dsys tkrs-


a) by substituting a Noun for a Noun clause introducing by 'that'

'that' uh lq: gks.kk&;k uke miokD; ,soth ukekpk mi;ksx d:u-

Complex :- He said that he was innocent.

Simple :- He declared his innocence.

Complex:- It is said that he died so young.

Simple:-His death at so young an age is sad.


b) by substituting a Noun for a Noun clause

¼uke miokD;k ,soth ukekpk mi;ksx d:u½

Complex :- We need not disbelieve in the words, he said.

Simple :- We need not disbelieve his words.

Complex:- He remarked how foolish the boy was.

Simple:- He remarked on the foolishness of the boy.


c) by using a participle or an adjective

¼/kkrqlkf/kr fo'ks"k.k fdaok fo'ks"k.k oki:u½

Complex :- Such boys as work hard get success.

Simple :- Hard-working boys get success.

Complex:- Those that are helpless deserve our pity.

Simple:- The helpless deserve our pity.


d) by using a preposition with its object

¼'kCn;ksxh vO;;kpk dekZlkscr mi;ksx d:u½

Complex :- The benefits that he derived from his early training helped him.

Simple :- The benefits of his early training helped him.

Complex:- The place of their living is unhealthy.

Simple:- The soldiers returned at the end of the war.


e) by using infinitive-¼fdz;kinkP;k eqG :ikpk mi;ksx d:u½

Complex :- I have no money that I can spare.

Simple :-  I have no money to spare.

Complex:- They were surprised when they heard my speech.

Simple:- They were surprised to  hear my speech.


f) by using compound Noun-¼la;qDr ukekpk mi;ksx d:u½

Complex :- We came upon a hut where a peasant lived.

Simple :-  We came upon a  peasant hut.

Complex:- I asked him why he went there.

Simple:- I asked him the reason of his going there.


g) by using a prepositional phrase-¼'kCn;ksxh vO;;klg 'kCnleqg oki:u½

Complex :- The boy was pleased that he had won a prize.

Simple :- The boy was pleased at wining a prize.

Complex:- Youth is the time when the seeds of character germinate.

Simple:- Youth is the time for the germination  of the seeds of character .   


Turn the following complex sentences into simple sentences:-

1) Do you know how old I am?

► Do you know my age?

2) I'll tell you the other condition just before the game starts.

► Just before the start of the game, I will tell you the other condition.

3) And he did experiments in the small laboratory he had set up at his house.

► And he did experiments in the small laboratory at his house.

4) A bird flutterd for a few seconds after which it fell to the grounds.

► A bird flutterd for a few seconds before falling to the grounds.

5) I didn't know there were so many kinds of birds.

► I was ignorant of so many kinds of birds.

6) When he return home he did a course in zoology.

► On his return home, he did a course in zoology.

7) When Cyril was younger she would cajole him.

► During Cyril's younger days she would cajole him.

8) I have heard you're fond of birds.

► I have heard of your fondess for birds.

9) "If I don't study geography and don't go to school how can I become an expert on birds?"

► Without studying geography and going to school, how can I become an expert on           birds?

10) Here are some of the things that happen when someone drinks coffee.

► Some of these things happen to a drinker of coffee.


G) Interchange of Simple to compound sentences

            While changing a simple sentence to a compound sentences the following points should be kept in mind.

1) The compound sentence should contain two or more main clauses.

2) All the main clauses should be joined by co-ordinating conjunctions or co-ordinators.

          lk/;k okD;kps la;qDr okD;kr :ikarj dj.ks-lk/;k okD;kps la;qDr okD;kr :ikarj djr vlrkuk [kkyhy eq|s y{kkr ?;kosr-

1½ la;qDr OkkD;ke/;s nksu fdaok tkLr eq[; miokD; vlkosr-

2½ loZ ew[; miokD;s mHk;kUo;h vO;;s ¼ co-ordinating conjunctions½ fdaok ¼ co-ordinators½ P;k lg¸k;kus tksMkosr-

For example:- I bought a new cycle.

Main clause ¼eq[; miokD;½ -  I bought a cycle

Co-ordinating conjunction ¼dksvkWMhZusVj½ -  and

Main clause ¼eq[; miokD;½  -  It was new


*Turn the following simple sentences to compound sentences:-

1) He got up without taking the coin.

► He got up but he did not take the coin.

2) I saw a mad dog.

► I saw a dog and it was mad.

3) Inspite of being fat he runs fast.

► He is fat yet he runs fast.

4) Fighting bravely they won the victory.

► They not only fought bravely but also won the victory.

5) The doctor was called because of Akbar's illness.

► The doctor was called for Akbar was ill.       

6) Being kids we had no notion of time.

► We were kids therefore we had no notion of time.

7) He is too fat to run.

► He is too fat so he cannot run.

8) He is a great timd man.

► He is a great man but he is a timid man.

9) He hates you for your temper.

► You have a temper so he hates you.

10) Inspite of bing sleepy, I studied.

► I was sleepy still I studied.


H) Interchange of compound to Simple sentences.

While changing from compound to simplethe following points should be kept in mind:-

1) The simple sentence after the change should have only one finite verb.

2) The co-ordinators or co-ordinating conjunctions should be deleted.

e.g- You work hard and you will pass finite verb.

3) In addition refer to rules given in section (F)

          la;qDr okD;kps lk/;k okD;kr :ikarj djk- la;qDr okD;kps lk/;k okD;kr :aikrj djr vlrkuk [kkyhy ckch y{kkr ?;kO;kr-

1½ cny dsY;kuarjP;k lk/;k okD;kr ,dp eq[; fdz;kin vlkos-

2½ nksu okD;kauk tksM.kkjh 'kCn fdaok mHk;kUo;h vO;;s dk<qu Vkdkohr-

e.g- You work hard and you will pass.¼la;qDr okD;½

    You work hard to pass.¼lk/ks okD;½

       (finite verb)

(E) lsD'ku e/;s fnysys fu;e igk-


*Turn the following compound sentences into simple sentences:-

1) She closed the door and she started weeping.

► Closing the door she started weeping.

2) I bought a car. It was red.

► I bought a red car.

3) I saw my elder brothe. He was  beaten by my father.

► I saw my elder brother being beaten by my father.

4) He was a wise man . He liked smoking.

Inspite of being a wiseman he like smoking.

5) The young man took a lump. He chewed it.

► Taking a lump the young man chewed it.

6) It is the tenth day of Muharram. It is known for the Tazia procession

► The tenth day of Muharram is known for the Tazia procession.

7) The bird fluttered for a few seconds. It fell to the ground.

► Fluttering for a few seconds it fell to the ground.

8) Dr. Rao asked Cyril to climb several trees. He told him to peek into the nests.

► Dr. Rao asked Cyril to climb several trees  to peek into the nests.

9) I realised my mistake. I began to jump.

► Realising my mistake I began to jump.

10) She thought for some time. She promised to help him.

► After thinking for some times she promised to help him.


I) Synthesis / Conjunctions / Co-ordination

Synthesis is a prcess of combination. In this, (a) You combine two simple sentences to make a single simple sentences.(b) You combine two simple sentences to produce a single complex sentence. Not only…..but also, either……or, but, and, or, too can also used to combine two simple sentence.

          g;k izfdz;sr okD;kaps ,d=hdj.k vlrs- g;kr ¼v½ nksu lk/;k okD;kaps :iakrj ,dk lk/;k okD;kr ¼c½ nksu lk/;k okD;kaps :ikarj ,dk feJ okD;kr djrk ;srs- Not only…..but also, either……or, but, and, or, too g;kapk mi;ksx d:u ns[khy nksu lk/kh okD;s tksMrk ;srkr-

a) Simple to Simple sentences

Conversion of two  Simple sentences into a Simple sentence.

1) He saw me. He was happy.

► On seeing me he was happy.

2) He gave me books. He encouraged me.

► In addition to giving books, he also encouraged me.

3) But now they have big axes. They cut my trees down with the axes.

► But now they have big axes to cut my trees down.


b) Simple to Complex sentences

Conversion of two  Simple sentences into a complex sentence.

1) We are leaving for Pune. We will stay there for a month.

► We are leaving for Pune where we will stay for a month.

2) This balance is fragile. Today we are beginning to understand this.

► Today we are beginning to understand that this balance is fragile.

3) Trees are worth protecting.At last people have begun to realize this.

► At last people have begun to realize that trees are worth protecting.


 c) Simple to Compound sentences

Conversion of two  Simple sentences into a compound sentence.

1) She opened the book. She began to read.

► She opened the book and she began to read.

2) He paid the school fees. Principal told him to leave the school.

► He paid the school fees but the principal told him to leave the school.

3) My father gave me a present. I came first in the class.

► I came first in the class therefore my father gave me a present.


J) Use of 'As soon as'

Use of 'As soon as', 'No sooner – than,' 'Hardly…when'.

          'As soon as', 'No sooner – than,' 'Hardly…when' ;k loZ mHk;kUo;h 'kCn iz;ksxkaps vFkZ ,dp vkgsr- ^^,d fdz;k lairs u lairs rksp**-

[kkyhy okD;a vH;klk%&

As soon as the bell rang , the students rushed out of the class.

¼?kaVk oktyh u oktyh rksp fon;kFkhZ oxkZckgsj iGkys-½

Hardly had the bell rung, when the students rushed out of the class.

¼?kaVk oktY;kcjkscj fon;kFkhZ ckgsj iGkys½

    ojhy okD;kaP;k vH;klko:u gs fnlwu ;srs dh ojhy mHk;kUo;h 'kCniz;ksx toGikl ,dkp vFkkZps vkgsr-

(i) As soon as:- as soon as okijrkuk [kkyhy ckch y{kkr Bsok- as soon as gs conjunction phrase vkgs- R;keqGs gs nksu okD;kauk tksMrs- OkkD;kauk tksMrkuk as soon as T;k okD;kyk tksMys tkrs rs xkS.k miokD; (subordinate clause) gksrs o R;kuarj ;s.kkjs miokD; gs ew[; miokD; vlrs-

    as soon as okijrkuk okD;krhy fdz;kinkP;k vFkZko:u dks.krh fdz;k vxksnj ?kMyh o dks.krh uarj ;kpk vFkZcks/k gksrks- rs fdz;kin vxksnj ?kMysyh fdz;k n'kZfors R;k fdz;kinkP;k okD;ka'kkiqohZ as soon as tksMkos-

    e.g- The guard waved the flag. The train started.                         

;k okD;kr xkMZus >saMk gyfoyk nql&;k okD;kr vkxxkMh lq: >kyh- xkMZus >saMk gyfoyk gh fdz;k vxksnj ?kMyh gs Li"V gksrs Eg.kqu ex okD; [kkyhyizek.ks gksrs-

As soon as the guard waved the flag, the train started.

¼xkMZus >saMk gyforkp vkxxkMh fu?kkyh½

;krhy As soon as the guard waved the flag  gs xkS.k miokD; (subordinate clause) rj the train started. gs eq[; miokD; (Main clause) vkgs-

ojhy okD;krhy eq[; miokD; izFke ?ksÅu lq/nk okD; fyghrk ;sbZy-

The train started as soon as the guard waved the flag.

     Some more sentences:-

1) As soon as they vacate the flat, we will occupy it.

No sooner do they vacate the flat than we occupy it.

2) As soon as the bell rang, the strdents entered the class-rooms.

No sooner did the bell ring than the students entered the class- rooms.

3) As soon as the reference blew the whistle, the match started.

No sooner did the referee blow the whistle than the match started.

4) As soon as he waved the green flag, the train left.

No sooner  did he wave the green flag than the train left.

5) The function will begin as soon as the guest comes.

No sooner does the guest come than the function will begin.


(ii) No sooner…than

            No sooner …than okijrkuk as soon as lkj[ksp th fdz;k loZ izFke ?kMyh R;k okD;kl vkgs rs lkgk¸;dkjh fdz;kin ?ksrkr R;kuarj drkZ o uarj fdz;kin vlk dze ;srks- no sooner P;k okD;kr uarjps miokD; izFke ¼lqjokrhyk½ ?ksrk ;sr ukgh-

[kkyhy okD; igk%&

Use of No sooner …than

1) As he rode slowly through the countryside, he heard a soft humming.

► No sooner did he ride slowly through the countryside than he heard a soft humming.

2) Hardly had we gone some distance when we saw a tiger.

► No sooner had we gone some distance than we saw a tiger.

3) I had just sat down and begun to read my book again when I was started by the cry.

► No sooner had I sat down and begun to read my book again than I was startled by the cry.

4) The sun had risen. Birds began chirping.

► No sooner had the sun risen than birds began chirping.

5) We had entered the house. The phone started ringing.

► No sooner had we entered the house than the phone started ringing.


(iii) Hardly-when

            No sooner …than izek.ksp hardly…when ;k mHk;kUo;h 'kCn iz;ksxkpk okij djrkr- ijarq no sooner uarj R;k R;k dkGkuq:i lgk;dkjh fdz;kin ?ksrys tkrs rs Hardly P;k uarj ?ksrys tkr ukgh Hardly uarj had okijrkr R;kuarj drkZ o fdz;kinkps frljs :I okijrkr-

[kkyhy okD;a vH;klk%&

1) As soon as the rain stopped , they started playing.

► Hardly had the rain stopped when they started playing.

2) No sooner did Rustomji's guilt come to light than he was booked.

► Hardly had his guilt come to light when he was booked.

3) We had reached the top of the hill when it started raining.

► Hardly had we reached the top of the hill when it started raining.


Some more sentences:-

1) We had gone some distance. We saw a juggler with his monkey.

► Hardly had we gone some distance when we saw a juggler with his monkey.

2) We had crossed the bridge. We saw the dog.

► Hardly had we crossed the bridge when we saw the dog.

3) The sun had risen. Birds began chirping.

► Hardly had the sun risen when birds began chirping.

4) We had reached the top of the hill when it started raining.

► Hardly had we reached the top of the hill when it started raining.

5) Father had returned from the office. He was called again.

► Hardly had father returned from the office when he was called again.


K) Interchange of use of 'too-to' and 'so…that'

[kkyhy okD;s vH;klk%&

He is so weak that he cannot run fast.

¼rks brdk v'kDr vkgs fd rks osxkus /kkow 'kdr ukgh-½

    ojhy okD;kP;k vH;klko:u rqqEgkyk gs y{kkr vkys vlsy fd so ….that P;k ,soth too…to okijrk ;srs fdaok too…to P;k ,soth so….that okijrk ;srs-

too…to dk<qu so…that okijrkuk ifgY;k too ,soth so okijrkr- o R;k iq<hy to dk<wu that okijrkr- okD;krhy dR;kZuwlkj loZZuke ?ksrkr am, is, are vlsy rj lgk;dkjh fdz;kins vlrhy rjh could not vFkok did not okijrkr-

;kmyV so….that dk<wu too…to okijrkuk so ,soth too okijrkr- that + loZuke + lgk;dkjh fdz;kin oxGqu R;k,soth iq<s ;s.kk&;k fdz;kinkl to tksMrkr- y{kkr Bsok too…to ps okD; udkjkFkhZ vlrs- too…to ps okD; simple sentence vlrs rj  so….that ps okD; gs complex sentence vlrs- so T;k miokD;kr okijys tkrs rs ew[; miokD; (main clause) gksrs rj that iklqups iq<ps miokD; (sub-ordinate clause)   xkS.k miokD; gksrs so…that e/khy clause gk adverb clause of result pk vlrks-

    For making a sentence shorter, emphatic concise a clause from a complex sentence is deleted and the sentence made simple. Use of 'too' is one of the ways of converting a complex sentence into a simple one ,Depending on the tense (present or past) , 'Too , is replaced by 'so…that,can/could not,' as reported earlier.


* Examples will clarify:-

1) He is too timid to argue with the cashier.

► He is so timid that he cannot argue with the cashier.

2) The house was too shabby to fetch more rent.

► The house was so shabby that it could not fetch more rent.

3) The man is too simple to attract attention.

► The man is so simple that he can not attract attention.

4) The house was too small to accommodate all of us.

► The house was so small that it could not accommodate all of us.


Some more examples:-

1) The news is too good to be true.

► The news is so good that it can not be true.

2) These mangoes are too cheap to be good.

► These mangoes are so cheap that they can not be good.

3) It is too sour to eat.

► It is so sour that one cannot eat it.

4) He was too old to work.

► He was so old that he could not work.

5) It was too troublesome for them to go back.

► It was so troublesome that they could not go back.

6) The bully was so strong that I could not resist .

► The bully was too strong for me to resist.

7) Men are so selfish that they cannot think of the trees.

► Men are too selfish to think of the trees.

8) Fanny was so adamant that she could not yield.

► Fanny was too adamant to yield.

9) My hands and fingers were too podgy for me to be good at this game.

► My hands and fingers were so podgy that I could not be good at this game.

10) Mini baby, it is too windy to sit outside.

► Mini baby, it is so windy that you cannot sit outside.


L) Use of 'Unless / If….not

1) "Unless" okD;krqu dk<Y;koj R;k,soth if(do/does/did) not pk iz;ksx gksrks-

2) Unless dk<Y;koj okD; udkjkFkhZp jkgrs gs Li"V vkgs- d/kh d/kh "Unless" rj dk<kp i.k udkjHkko ns[khy dk<k- v'kk vk'k;kpk iz'u fopkjrkr- rsaOgk if P;k vk/kh only if  fygkos-

    One of the devices in transformation is to change the pattern in a sentence without altering its meaning. If a sentence contains 'unless' it can be replaced by' if…(do/does/did) …not, as in the following sentences.

1) She cannot catch the bus unless she walks fast.

► She cannot catch the bus if she does not walkfast.

2) You cannot conquer unless you have confidence.

► You cannot conquer if you do not have confidence.

          As is obvious, the sentence after the replacement of 'unless' is Negative . Sometimes it is expected not only to replace 'unless' but also to remove the negative element in it. In such an exercise 'only' is to be inserted in the sentence prior to if. The sentence then becomes Affirmative. Further it is customary to begin the sentence with 'only if'. The two sentence cited earliler would read, after the removel of the negative form, as under.( (a) gs udkjkFkhZ n'kZfors rj (b) gs gksdkjkFkhZ n'kZfors )

1) (b) Only if she walks fast, can she catch the bus.

2) (b) Only if you have confidence, can you conquer.

 However, such sentences as the following are also found.

1) (b) She can catch the bus only if she walks fast.

2) (b) You can conquer only if you have confidence.

Some more examples:-

1) He cannot win unless he runs fast.        

► (a) He cannot win if he does not run fast.

     (b) He can win only if he runs fast.

2) An Englishman would not speak to a stranger unless he is not properly introduced.

► (a) An Englishman would not speak to a stranger if he is not properly introduced.

     (b) An Englishman would speak to a stranger only if he is properly introduced.

3) I cannot do the job unless you help me.

► (a) I cannot do the job if you do not help me.

     (b) I can do the job only if you help me.

4) How can I tell you, unless I know?


► (a) How can I tell you, if I do not know?

     (b) I can tell you only if I know.

5) Unless you work hard, you cannot pass.

► (a) If you do not work hard, you cannot pass.

     (b) Only if you work hard can you pass.


M) Not only…..but also / as well as

                        fnysY;k nksu okD;kar leku vl.kkjk Hkkx vkiY;k mRrjkP;k okD;kr ,dp osG fyghrkr- vleku vl.kk&;k ,dk HkkxkiqohZ  Not only o nql&;k HkkxkiwohZ but also gs 'kCn Bsokosr-

    e.g- His subjects were tired of war.

                   They were tired of victories,too.

          ;k nksu okD;kaps ,d okD; cuforkuk R;krhy  His subjects were tired gk Hkkx ,dnkp fyghrkr] of war. P;kiqohZ Not only Bsorkr] of victories P;k iqohZ but also Bsorkr vkf.k mRrj fyghrkr-

ojhy okD;kps mRrj [kkyh fnysys vkgs-

His subjects were tired not only of war but also of victory.

    ;sFks ukekcjkscj ;s.kkjs miin fdaok 'kCn;ksxh vO;;kiq<s ;s.kkjs R;kps deZ vll 'kCnleqg fopkjkr ?kssrkr- R;keqGs of war o of victory ;krhy of gk 'kCn  common letysyk ukgh gs y{kkr ;srs-

We can use 'and' to connect two words/phrases/clauses. Look at the following sentence:-

e.g- Games strengthen the muscles of the boys and make them strong and brave.

       Games do two things for the boys.

One:- "Strengthen the muscles"

Two:- " Make them strong and brave"

          We can say the same thing by using 'not-only….but-also' instead of 'and' which connect the two words'strong' and 'brave'. 

► Games not only strengthen the muscles of the boys but also make them strong and brave.


Some more examples:-

1) You will grow up and become good citizens.

► You will not only grow up but also become good citizens.

2) Plant more trees in your house, in your school and in your town and village.

► Plant more trees not only in your house and school but also in your town and village

3) Games harden the children and enable them to endure the weather.

► Games not only harden the children but also enable them to endure the weather.

4) Between them , businessmen and farming tribes are devastating the forests.

► Not only businessmen but farming tribes also are devastating the forests.

5) Tibet is extremely cold in winter and extremely hot in summer.

► The climate of Tibet is extreme not only in winter but also in summer due to cold and heat.


N) Able to-can / could, Unable to-can't / couldn't

          Able to- 'kD;rk nk[kfors

1) She is able to sing a song.- rh xk.ks Eg.kq 'kdrs-

2) I was able to do this work.-eh gs dke d: 'kdrks-

    ojhy nksu okD;s can/could pk mi;ksx d:u vki.k [kkyhy izek.ks fygw 'kdrks-

e.g- 1) She can sing a song.

2) I could do this work.

* Rewrite the following sentences using a suitable form of to be  +  able  +  to:-

1) Mini could not walk.

► Mini was not able to walk.

2) Seema could not button up her shirt.

► Seema was not able to button up her shirt.

3) She could crawl.

► She was able to crawl.

4) She could also manoeuvre her wheelchair.

► She was also able to manoeuvre her wheelchair.

5) The bird could hop along.

► The bird was able to hop along.


O) Change the degree ¼rj & re Hkkon'kZd ½

     rjreHkko Eg.kts rqyuk] rqyuk djrkuk fo'ks"k.k (adjective) fdaok fdz;kfo'ks"k.k (adverb) ;kaP;ke/;s cny gksrks- Degree rhu izdkjph vlrs-

1) Positive degree

2) Comparative degree

3) Superlative degree


1) Positive degree


Deepa is as clever as Aanad.

          ;k okD;kr clever gs fo'ks"k.kkps eqG :I okijys vkgs vkf.k nhikph vkuancjkscj lekurk nk[ko.kkjh rqyuk dsyh vkgs- nksu O;Drh fdaok oLrqae/khy lekurk nk[ko.;kdjrk as/so + Adjective + as v'kh 'kCnjpuk djrkr- eqG fo'ks"k.k vlysY;k ;k rqyusyk positive degree vls Eg.krkr-

e.g- No other boy is as clever as Raj.


2) Comparative degree


 Shubha is cleverer than Deepa.

          ;k okD;akr 'kqHkkP;k gq'kkjhph rqyuk nhikP;k gq'kkjh'kh dsyh vkgs- cleverer than ;k Comparative degree pk mi;ksx d:u ^'kqHkk fnikis{kk ¼vf/kd½ gq'kkj vkgs* vls lkafxrys vkgs- nksu O;Drh fdaok oLrqae/khy rqyuk v'kk izdkjs Comparative degree okijrk ;srs-

e.g- Mumbai is begger than Pune.


3) Superlative degree


Yogita is the cleverest girl in the class.

    ;k okD;kr cleverest ;k fo'ks"k.kkP;k cleverest ;k superlative degree pk mi;ksx dsyk vkgs- ;ksfxrk oxkZrhy lokZr gq'kkj eqyxh vkgs- vlk ;k okD;kpk vFkZ gksrks- lokZr Js"B] mPp fLFkrh O;Dr dj.kk&;k rqyusyk fo'ks"k.kkph superlative degree Eg.krkr-

e.g- Shaila is the most obedient girl.


A) Interchange of the positive and the comparative degrees:-

            Degree of comparision ps :ikarj djrkuk eqG okD;kpk vFkZ dk;e Bsokok ykxrks] gs y{kkr BsoY;kl [kkyh fnysys Li"Vhdj.k lgt letq 'kdsy nksu O;Drh] nksu oLrq fdaok nksu xV ;kaP;ke/;s rqyuk djrkuk positive fdaok comparative degree okijrk ;srs- ¼ superlative degree okijr ukgh-½

E.g- 1) Ramesh is as tall as Abhishek.(positive degree)

¼vfHk"ksd ftrdk map vkgs frrdkp jes'k map vkgs-½

► Abhishek is not taller than Ramesh.(comparative degree)

¼vfHk"ksd jes'kis{kk vf/kd map ukgh-½

2) Kamal is not so tall as vimal. (positive degree)

¼dey foeybrdh map ukgh-½

► Vimal is taller than Kamal. (comparative degree)

¼foey deyis{kk vf/kd map vkgs-½

    ojhy okD;kao:u gs y{kkr ;sbZy fd&&

1)                Positive e/kqu comparative fdaok comparative e/kqu positive e/;s okD;kps :ikarj djrkuk eqG okD; gksdkjkFkhZ vlsy rj :ikarjhr okD; udkjkFkhZ fyghrkr] rlsp eqG okD; udkjkFkhZ vlsy rj :ikarjhr okD; gksdkjkFkhZ fyghrkr-

2)                eqG okD;krhy drkZ o T;kP;k'kh rqyuk dsyh tkrs rks ¼Eg.ktsp xkS.k okD;krhy½ drkZ ;kaP;k LFkkukaph vnykcny gksrs- ojhy ifgY;k okD;kr Ramesh gk eqG okD;krhy drkZ vlqu R;kph Abhishek ;kP;k'kh ¼xkS.k okD;krhy dR;kZ'kh½ rqyuk dsyh vkgs- Eg.kqu] :ikarjhr okD;kr Abhishek o Ramesh ;kaP;k LFkkukar vnykcny >kyh vkgs- rksp izdkj nql&;kgh okD;kr >kyk vkgs-

3)                Positive degree e/khy okD;kr as…as fdaok not so…as ;ke/;s fo'ks"k.kkps fdaok fdz;kfo'ks"k.kkps Positive degree e/khy :i fygkos ykxrs-e.g- as tall as, not so tall as.

4)                Comparative degree e/khy okD;kr fo'ks"k.kkps ¼fdaok fdz;kfo'ks"k.kkps½ Comparative degree e/khy :I oki:u R;kuarj than gk 'kCn okijkok ykxrks-e.g- taller than, not taller than.

       ojhy loZ eqn`ns pkaxys y{kkr ;s.;klkBh iq<hy vk.k[kh dkgh mnkgj.ks dkGthiqoZd okpk-

1) I am as strong as Raju. (Positive degree)

¼jktq ftrdk cyoku vkgs frrdkp eh cyoku vkgs½

► Raju is not stronger than I/me. (Comparative degree)

              ¼jktq ekÖ;kis{kk vf/kd cyoku vkgs-½

       2) Hindi is not so difficult as English. (Positive degree)

              ¼fganh baxzthbrdh dBh.k ukgh-½

       ► English is more difficult than Hindi. (Comparative degree)

              ¼baxzth fganhis{kk vf/kd dBh.k vkgs-½


B) Interchange of the superlative the comparative and the positive degrees:-

[kkyhy okD;s okpk %&

1) Amit is the tallest boy in the class. (superlative degree)

¼vfer gk oxkZr lokZr map eqyxk vkgs-½

2) Amit is taller than any other boy in the class. (Comparative degree)

¼vfer oxkZrhy brj dks.kR;kgh eqyis{kk vf/kd map ukgh½

3) No other boy in the class is as tall as Amit. (positive degree)

¼oxkZrhy nqljk dks.krkgh eqyxk vferbrdk map ukgh-½

    ojhy okD;kr superlative e/kqu Comparative e/;s okD; :ikarj djrkuk okD;kph lqjokr eqG okD;krhy drkZ dk;e Bsoqup ¼Eg.ktsp Amit is ½ dsyh vkgs- ek= the tallest ;k superlative :ik,soth Comparative e/khy taller than ;k 'kCnkapk okij dsyk vkgs o R;kuarj any other boy gs 'kCn fyghys vkgsr-

    superlative ps positive e/;s :ikarj djrkuk okD;kph lqjokr No other boy g;k 'kCnkauh dsyh vkgs gs uhV /;kukr Bsokos R;kuarj positive ps as tall as gs :i fyghys vkgs- o R;kuarj eqG okD;krhy drkZ (Amit) fyghyk vkgs-


C) Interchange of the positive , the comparative and the superlative degrees ('One of the ' type)


[kkyhy okD;s okpk %&

1) Abhishek is one of the cleverest boys in the class. (superlative degree)

¼vfHk"ksd gk oxkZrhy lokZf/kd gq'kkj eqykaiSdh ,d vkgs-½

2) Abhishek is cleverer than most other boys in the class. (superlative degree)

 (comparative degree)

¼oxkZrhy brj cgqrsd eqykais{kk vfHk"ksd vf/kd gq'kkj vkgs-½

3) Very few boys in the class are as clever as Abhishek. (positive degree)

¼oxkZrhy Qkjp FkksMh eqys vfHk"ksd brdh gq'kkj vkgsr½

    superlative degree e/khy okD;kr one of the gs 'kCn vkY;kl comparative degree e/;s okD; :ikarj djrkuk than most other gs 'kCn fyghos ykxrkr gs uhV /;kukr Bsokos- (cleverer than most other)

rsp okD; positive degree e/;s :ikajhr djrkuk positive e/khy okD;kph lqjokr very few g;k 'kCnkauh djkoh ykxrs- (Very few boys) rlsp as…as ;kae/;s fo'ks"k.kkps eqG :I okijkos ykxrs- (as clever as)

Superlative degree e/khy :ikaiqohZ 'the' gs miin (article) okijys tkrs- y{kkr Bsok the cleverest, the tallest.

e.g- 1)America is one of the richest countries. (superlative degree)

¼vesfjdk gk lokZf/kd Jhear ns'kkaiSdh ,d ns'k vkgs-½

2) America is richer than most other countries. (superlative degree)

¼brj cgqrsd ns'kkais{kk vesfjdk vf/kd Jhear vkgs-½

3) Very few countries are as rich as America. (positive degree)

¼Qkjp FkksMs ns'k vesfjds brds Jhear vkgsr-½

    [kkyhy fo'ks"k.k d'kk i/nrhus r;kj gksrkr R;kpk vH;kl djk&

1) Generally comparative and superlative adjectives are formed by adding 'er' and 'est' to the positive.

e.g-           Positive            Comparative             Superlative

                 Bold                      Bolder                     Boldest

                Clever                    Cleverer                  Cleverest

                Great                     Greater                    Greatest

                Sweet                    Sweeter                   Sweetest

2) When the positive adjective ends in 'y' preceded by a consonant the 'y' is changed into 'I' before adding 'er' and 'est'

e.g-           Positive            Comparative                   Superlative

                 Easy                     Easier                               Easiest

                 Happy                   Happier                           Happiest

                 Heavy                    Heavier                            Heaviest

                 Wealthy                Wealthier                         Wealthiest


3) When the positive adjective ends in 'E' only 'R' and 'ST' are added.      

e.g-           Positive            Comparative             Superlative

                Able                       Abler                      Ablest

                 Brave                    Braver                    Bravest

                 Fine                       Finer                      Finest

                 Wise                      Wiser                     Wisest

                Large                     Larger                      Largest


4) When the positive adjective is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel this consonant is doubled before adding 'er' and 'est'.

e.g-           Positive            Comparative             Superlative

                Big                         Bigger                     Biggest

                 Fat                         Fatter                     Fattest

                 Hot                        Hotter                      Hottest

                 Sad                        Sadder                   saddest

5) Comparative and superlative adjectives are formed by adding the adverbs 'more' and 'less' and 'least' with the positive.

e.g-           Positive            Comparative             Superlative

              Beautiful            More Beautiful           Most Beautiful

                                         Less Beautiful            Least Beautiful

              Qualified             More Qualified           Most Qualified

                                          Less Qualified           Least Qualified

              Kind                    More Kind                  Most Kind

                                          Less Kind                  Least Kind

              Proper                 More Proper             Most Proper

                                          Less Proper               Least Proper      


6) Irregular adjectives have generally separate words as their comparatives and superlatives.

e.g-           Positive            Comparative             Superlative

               Good                 Better                         Best

               Bad                    Worse                        Worst

               Many                  More                           Most

               Much                  More                           Most

               Little                   Less                           Least

               Far                      Farther                       Farthest

               Old                     Older/elder                 Oldest/eldest

               Late                    Later/Latter                Latest/Last

               Fore                    Former                       Fore most/First



P) Used to 'for habitual past'

            HkqrdkGkr ,[kknh fdz;k fu;feri.ks fdaok okjaokj gksr gksrh gssssssssssss n'kZo.;kdfjrk 'Used to' pk okij djrkr-

e.g- 1) I used to play cricket when I was a child.

¼eh ygku gksrks rsaOgk fdzdsV [ksGr vls-½

2) Lalu used to sing well in those days.

¼R;kdkGh ykyq pkaxyk xkr vls-½

3) Every Sunday we used to go out for a walk.

¼vkEgh oj jfookjh fQjk;yk tkr vlq-½

    ojhy okD;kao:u gs y{kkr ;sbZy dh%&

'Used to' ph jpuk HkqrdkGkrhy lo;] fjr fdaok in`/rh] ugeh djr vlysY;k xks"Vh b- O;Dr dj.;kdjrk okijrk ;srs-

'Used to' gs lgk;dkjh fdz;kin vkgs- 'Used to' uarj eq[; fdz;kinkps eqG :I Eg.kts go,come, see vls okijkos ykxrs-

e.g- 1) Gandhiji prayed every day in his Ashram.               

► Gandhiji used to pray every day in his Ashram.

2) We took care of the little puppy all the time.

► We used to take care of the little puppy all the time.

3) He sang in the streets before he became a music director.

► He used to sing in the streets before he became a music director.


Q) Enough (adjective and adverb)

            (Adjective and Adverb)

Enough  ;kpk vFkZ iqjs'kh] iqjsls] iqjslk vlk vkgs- ;k 'kCnkpk Adjective and Adverb vlk nksUgh izdkjs mi;ksx dsyk tkrks-

a) enough food fdaok enough talk v'kk fBdk.kh ukekP;k vk/kh ;sÅu rks adjective ps ¼fo'ks"k.k½ dke djrks-

e.g- 1) He ate enough chapattis in the morning. (adjective)

2) They have enough money to pay the heavy bill. (adjective)

b) ijarq clever enough fdaok quickly enough v'kk fBdk.kh fo'ks"k.k fdaok fdz;kfo'ks"k.k ;kaP;kuarj ;sÅu rks sufficiently clever fdaok sufficiently quickly v'kk vFkhZ adverb ps ¼fdz;kfo'ks"k.kkps½ dke djrks-

e.g- 1) They were foolish enough to enter the stormy sea. (Adverb)

2) The arrow flew forcefully enough to kill the tiger. (Adverb)


R) Infinitive / Geurnd (verbal noun)

            (Object of verb/ purpose)

[kkyhy okD;s okpk %&

1)    He decides to go.

2)    They decided to go.

3)    She will decide to go.

ojhy frUgh okD;s dkGthiqoZd ikfgY;kl y{kkr ;sbZy fd frUgh okD;kar drkZ o fdz;kinkpk dkG osxosxGk vkgs o rjhgh to go ;k jpusr Qjd >kysyk ukgh v'kk fdz;kokpd 'kCnkyk Infinitive vls Eg.krkr-

A) Infinitive as the object of verb.  ( infinitive pk fdz;kinkps deZ Eg.kwu mi;ksx)

e.g- 1) We must try to speak English.

¼vki.k baxzth cksy.;kpk iz;Ru dsyk ikfgts½

2) Kedar wanted to visit America.

¼dsnkjyk vesfjdsyk HksV n;k;ph gksrh-½

    ojhy okD;krhy to speak o to visit gh Infinitives 'must' o 'wanted' ;k fdz;kinkaP;k dekZaps dk;Z djrkr-

B) Infinitive to express purpose- (infinitive pk gsrq fdaok mn`ns'k O;Dr dj.;kdjrk mi;ksx)

e.g- 1) He went to the post office to send the parcel.

¼rks iksLV vkWfQle/;s iklZy ikBo.;kdjrk xsyk-½

2) The policeman ran to catch the thief.

¼iksyhl pksjkyk idM.;kdjrk /kkoyk-½

3) He was eage to get the place.

¼rks tkxk feGo.;kdjrk mRlqd gksrk-½

    ojhy okD;krhy to send, to catch, to get gh infinitives fdz;sekxhy gsrq fdaok mn`ns'k O;Dr djrkr-

* How/When/Where  +  infinitive (to)

(Forming a noun phrase)

[kkyhy okD;s okpk%&

1) I don't know how to do it. ¼rs dls djk;ps gs eyk ekfgr ukgh-½

2) He told me where to go. ¼R;kus eyk dqBs tk;ps rs lkafxrys-½

3) The teacher told us when to pay our fees.¼f'k{kdkauh vkeph Qh dsaOgk Hkjk;ph rs lkafxrys-½

    ojhy okD;kr how,where o when ;k 'kCnkauh tksM.kkjs BGd v{kjkrhy 'kCnleqg okD;krhy fdz;kinkP;k dekZps (object) dke djrkr- Eg.kqu rh okD;s noun phrases vkgsr gs y{kkr Bsok- v'kk izdkjP;k okD;jpusr how, where, when, what ;k 'kCnkuarj to go, to do, to say, to find v'kk izdkjph to us tksM.kkjh eqG fdz;kins Eg.ktsp infinitives okijyh tkrkr- tls] where to see, how to work, when to move.


Geurnd (verbal noun)

     ¼/kkrqlkf/kr uke½

fdz;kinkps ing ;wDr :i tsaOgk okD;kr drkZ fdaok deZ Eg.kwu okijys tkrs rsaOgk R;k ing ;wDr :ikyk ^tsjUmM* (Geurnd) vls Eg.krkr-Geurnd Eg.kts /kkrqlkf/kr uke-

• Gerund used as the subject of a verb.

e.g-1) Reading is a good hobby.

;k okD;kr reading gk drkZ(subject) vlY;kus rs gerund vkgs-

• Gerund used as the object of a verb.

e.g- I like reading.

;k okD;kr reading gs like ;k fdz;kinkps deZ object vlY;kus rs gerund vkgs-


S) Prefer….to ¼P;kis{kk vf/kd ilar vl.ks½

1)Prefer….to  = like…….. better than - ¼P;kis{kk vf/kd ilar vl.ks½

2) vf/kd ilar iM.ks gk rqyukRed vFkZ vlyk rjh prefer P;k uarj usgeh to gkp 'kCn ;srks- than ;sr ukgh-

e.g- I prefer coffee to tea. ¼eyk pgkis{kk dkWQh vf/kd vkoMrs-½

vf/kd vkoM.kk&;k ilar vl.kk&;k xks"Vhpk mYys[k prefer ;k 'kCnkuarj yxsp ;srks o to uarj d'kkis{kk vf/kd rs fyfgys tkrs- Prefer….to  = like…….. better than pk mi;ksx vlysyh okD;s igk-

e.g- 1) My brother likes oranges better than bananas.

► My brother prefers oranges to bananas.

2) Many people like meat better than vegetables.

► Many people prefer meat to vegetables.

3) She liked to read newspapers better than magazines.

► She preferred to read newspapers to magazines.


T) Punctuation

                             fopkj vknku &iznku dj.;kps ^Hkk"kk* gs egRokps lk/ku gks;- eukrhy fopkj cksyqu nk[kforkuk cksy.kkjk vkiys Eg.k.ks useds] dGkos] R;kpk vFkZcks/k Ogkok ;klkBh v/kque/kqu vYidkG Fkkacrks] Fkcdrks- vkiys Eg.k.ks iVoqu ns.;lkBh dkgh gkrokjs djrks- vkoktkr p< & mrkj vk.krks- dkgh osGk oDR;kP;k 'kCnkis{kk R;kP;k psg&;kojhy vkfoHkZkop iq"dGls dkgh lkaxqu tkrks- ;kyk Body language  Eg.krkr-

           Communication skill  Eg.kts Spoken language cjkscjp ;k Body language  yk gh egRo vkgs( ijarq tsOgk i=:ikus] iqLrd:ikus] xzaFk:ikus ,[kknk vkiys fopkj brjkai;Zar iksgkspor vlrks] rsOgk ;k Body language  ps dke] dkgh va'kh] fojke fpUgs djrkr-

           oDrk vkiys Eg.k.ks vFkZokgh dj.;klkBh tsFks tsFks LoYidkG Fkkacrks] rsFks rsFks LoYifojke] v/kZfojke] fojke] iq.kZfojke bR;knh fojkefpUgs okijrkr- iz'ukFkZd] mn~xkjokpd v'kk okD;kaiq<s iz'ufpUg] mn~xkjfpUg nsrkr vkf.k okpdkyk vkiyk vk'k; Li"V gksbZy v'kh fojkefpUgs okijrkr- Qkj rif'kykr u f'kjrk R;klaca/khP;k [kkyhy dkgh e|kaP;k dkGthiqoZd vH;kl djk-

           'kkys; vH;kldzekr iz'uif=dsr punctuation mark laca/kh iz'u fopkjrkr- ,[kk|k okD;krhy loZ fojkefpUgs oxGqu rs fyghysys vlrs- R;kr ;ksX; R;k fBdk.kh vuq:i v'kh fojkefpUgs oki:u rh okD;s iqUgk fygko;kph vlrkr- R;klkBh iq<hy egRokps fu;e y{kkr Bsokosr-

                       In writing, we show words and sentences separately. We also show whether a sentence is a question or an exclamation or a statement, We show what each person has said in the course of conversation. We show these and many other things with the help of certain marks. Punctuation is a system of using these marks in writing . We use them to separate or specify certain items.


Full stop                                  

Qwy LVkWi


Sigal inverted comma        '

flaxy buOgjVsM dkWek

,dsjh vorj.k fpUg

Double  inverted comma  "

Mcy buOgjVsM dkWek

nqgsjh vorj.k fpUg

 Brackets                         ( )



Hypen                                 -


la;ksx fpUg

 Colon                                 :



Semi - colon                      ;

lseh dksyu

v/kZ fojke

Exclamation                     !



Question                          ?



 Or                                    /



Comma                            ,



Quotation mark-            '  ,

dksVs'ku ekdZ

vorj.k fpUg

Apostrophe-                  '



Dash-                          ___



Capital letters-     A,B,C

dWfiVy ysVj

eksBh fyih


♦ Full stop- ¼iq.kZfojke½

                             It is also known as 'period' . It shows a longer pause . It is used:- • at the end of a statement or order ; Dogs are loyal, comein. • in some abbreviations : Bsc.

      iq.kZ fojke gs okD; laiys vkgs gs n'kZfors- gs fpUg fnlys fd FkksMs Fkkacqu ex iq<ps okD; okpkos- rlsp dkgh 'kCnkaps abbreviations ¼laf{kIr :i½ dsysys vlrs R;kosGh iq.kZ fojke okijrkr-fo/kkukRed vkf.k vkKkFkZd okD;kaP;k 'ksoVh iq.kZfojke Bsorkr-

e.g- 1) Ther lived a great prince. 2) Polish my shoes nicely.

Ukokrhy v|k{kjs vkf.k 'kCnkph laf{kIr :is ;kaP;kiq<s iq.kZfojke ;srks-

e.g- 1) Dr. Bhaggyam Kamala. 2) U .S. = United  States. 3) 4.48 Sq.m. = Square miles.

4) Prof.P.R.Jadhav, D.C.E.,B.E. (Civil), M.E. (Structures). 5) S.T. Bus = State Transport Bus.


♦ Quotation mark-  vorj.k fpUg

           They are also known as inverted commas. They are used:

to mark a quotation, or a specially used word or phrase .

  Double quotation marks are used in writing conversation.

vorj.k fpUg nksu izdkjps vkgs- ,d Eg.kts  ,dsjh vorj.k fpUg o nqljs Eg.kts    nqgsjh vorj.k fpUg- ,dsjh vorj.k fpUg gs fo'ks"k 'kCn fdaok okd~izpkj nk[kfo.;klkBh okijrkr-rj ,[kkn;kps 'kCn tlsP;k rls mn/k`r djrkuk R;kaP;k izkjaHkh vkf.k 'ksoVh vorj.kfpUg Bsorkr-

e.g- 1) Superlative adjectives are formed by adding 'er' and 'est' to the positive.

  2) "Speak!" he roard,"why are you so sorrowful?"

     3) "Plaining is no work for princes,"he mumbled.


Question - iz'ufpUg

           It is also used at the end of a question. izR;{k iz'ukuarj iz'ufpUg Bsorkr-

e.g – 1) What time is it? 2) Is not Bhima more useful to you?


Exclamation - mn~xkjokpd

                             It is used after an interjection or exclamation.

vk'p;Z]Hk;]nq%[k]dkSrqd b- HkkoHkkouk T;k lgt mn~xkjkeqGs O;Dr gksrkr] v'kk 'kCnkiq<s fdaok v'kk okD;kP;k 'ksoVh mn~xkj fpUg Bsorkr- O;kdj.kkrhy dsoyiz;ksxh vO;; 'interjection' gs mn~xkjp vlrkr- R;kaP;kiq<s mn~xkjfpUg Bsorkr- rlsp mn~xkjokpd okD;kapk vkjaHk how,what v'kk 'kCnkauh gksrks-

e.g – 1) "Funny!" Boby said to himself. 2) My goodness!  3) You rogue,I'll get you! 4) Yes, he was a thief! 5) What a lovely place it is! 6) How beautiful girl she is!


Apostrophe- yksifpUg

                       The apostrophe is punctuation mark. It is used with 'S' (or by itself) to show that a thing or a person belongs to somebody.

nksu 'kCnkapk la/kh gksrkuk R;krhy ,d fdaok vf/kd v{kjs laf/k;qDr 'kCnkr fyghyh tkr ukghr- T;k nksu 'kCnkapk la/kh gksrks]R;krhy ifgyk 'kCn iq.kZ vkf.k nql&;k 'kCnkrhy 'ksoVps ,d fdaok vf/kd v{kjs R;kiq<s Bsoqu la/kh gksrks- v'kk osGh th v{kjs fygyh xsyh ukghr] R;kaP;k tkxh f'kjskHkkxh LoYifojkekP;k vkdkjkps ,d fpUg Bsorkr-yksi >kysY;k v{kjkaps fBdk.kh ;s.kk&;k ;k fpUgkl ^yksifpUg* vls Eg.krkr-

e.g – I'll = I will, Don't = do not, I'd = I would/I had, We're = we are.

ukekph "k"Bh foHkDrh n'kZforkuk R;kyk ykx.kk&;k  s izR;;kiqohZ gs fpUg okijrkr-

e.g – Meena's Quiz, Mayur's bat.Sachin's cap.

vusdopuh ukekiq<s "k"Bhpk'S' tksMrkuk R;k vusdopuh ukekP;k Lisfyaxe/;s 'ksoVh 'S' vkysyk vlY;kl R;kiq<s gs fpUg Bsorkr( ijarq R;k fpUgkiq<s vk.k[kh ,d 'S' fyghr ukghr-

e.g – A girl's = ,dk eqyhpk] The girl's school = eqyhaph 'kkGk

rlsp osG lkaxrkukgh ;kpk mi;ksx gksrks- Eleven O'clock

• The tug-o'-war v'kk phrase e/;s ;s.kkjs ^yksifpUg* y{kkr Bsokos-


Colon -   folxZ

           ukVdkr ik=kP;k ukokiq<s fojke Bsoqu R;kiq<s R;kps laHkk"k.k fyghrkr- Bhima : This right hand is my weapon.

'kCnkapk vFkZ nsrkuk 'kCn vkf.k R;kpk vFkZ ;kaP;ke/;s ^fojke* Bsorkr-vkiY;k ikB;iqLrdkrhy glossary ;kp i/nrhus fnysyh vkgs-

e.g – Stoop (v) : bend low.

dkgh osGk vorj.kfpUgkiqohZ LoYifojke Bso.;k,soth ^fojke* Bsorkr- mnk%& vkiY;k iqLrdkrh " A profile in courage" ;k /kM;krhy cgqwrsd loZ laokn ;k i/nrhus fyghysys vkgsr-

e.g – 1) I said: "I shall bring lots of potatoes." 2) All I got back was:"Don't come home."

vkiY;k iqLrdkrhy punctuation P;k n`"Vhus dkgh egRokph okD;s [kkyh fnysyh vkgsr- R;kr ;ksX; fBdk.kh vuq:i v'kh fojkefpUgs vkf.k capital letter oki:u rh vFkZokgh cuokohr-

Semi – colonv/kZ fojke

           It shows a pause. It is usedto separate clause, especially those which or Not joined by a conjunction.

Comma -  LoYifojke

           Commas show a slight pause- O;kdj.kn`"V;k leku ntkZps 'kCn fdaok 'kCnleqg okD;kr ,dkiq<s ,d vls okijysys vlrhy vkf.k rs and ;k 'kCnkus tksMysys ulrhy rsOgk v'kk izR;sd 'kCnkiq<s fdaok 'kCnleqgkiq<s LoYifojke Bsorkr-

e.g – One could find panther , antelope, the common.

lacks/kukuarj LoYifojke Bsorkr- Boy, polish my shoes nicely.

vorj.kfpUgkiqohZZ LoYifojke Bsorkr- I said,"I am sorry".

laHkk"k.kkr Yes,No vlk  response nsÅu 'kCnkiq<s LoYifojke Bsorkr-

1) All right, now go out. 2) Oh,by all means.



           It is used to separate parts of a sentence :-

 e.g- She was counting something in a very low voice – almost a whisper. okD;kpk osxGkHkkx nk[kfo.;klkBh okijrkr-

♦ Hypen la;ksxfpUg

           It is used to connect the parts of a compound word; tsOgk nksu osxosxGs 'kCn ,d= ;sÅu ,d 'kCn r;kj gksrks rsaOgk gs fpUg okijrkr-

e.g- Double – click, easy – going.

It is also used to show that a word continues on the next line.'kCniq<P;k vksGhyk pkyw vkgs gs nk[kfo.;klkBh okijrkr-

♦ Bracketsdal

   Parentheses -   orqZGdal

1)     The main use of round brackets is to enclose explanation and extra information or comment. E.g- He is (as he always was) a rebel.

2)     To give references and citation. E.g- Thomas crlyle (1795 – 1881) a discussion of integrated circuits.

3)     To enclose reference letters or figures .

4)     To enclose optional words. e.g- They are many (apparent) difficulties.

T;knk ekghrh ns.;klkBh rlsp fVdk] i=kr tksMysys dkxni=kalkBh vkf.k ,sfPNd 'kCn fygh.;klkBh ;kpk okij djrkr-

 Square bracketspkSdksuh dal

1)    Square brackets are used to enclose extra information attributable to someone (editor) other than the writer of the surrounding text.

e.g – The man walked in and his sister (sarah) greeted him.

 Capital letterseksBhfyih

        1½ ^eh* ;k vFkkZus ;s.kkjs T gs baxzth ,dk{kjh loZuke usgeh capital fyghrkr-

2½ izR;sd okD;kP;k vkjaHkhps v{kj capital fyghrkr-

3½ ,[kk|k O;Drhps mn~xkj tlsP;k rls mn/k`r djrkuk vorj.kfpUgkaP;k e/khy R;k okD;kps ifgys v{kj capital fyghrkr-

4½ izR;sd fo'ks"kukekps ifgys v{kj capital fyfgrkr-

5½ ns'k]laLFkk]jLrs]daiU;k]cWadk]iqLrds]izdj.ks b- vusd 'kCnkauh cu.kk&;k ukokrhy izR;sd 'kCnkrhy ifgys v{kj capital fyghrkr-

e.g- The United Kingdoms,Shri Shivaji,Education Society,Karad.

Mahatma, Gandhi Road, Jadhav  Relekar  Road.

6½ ijes'oj];s'kq f[kzLr vkf.k R;klaca/khps loZuke ;krhy ifgys v{kj usgeh capital fyghrkr-

e.g – We love God and pray to Him.

7½ inoh vkf.k mik/khe/khy izR;sd 'kCnkps ifgys v{kj usgeh capital fyghrkr-

e.g – 1) Acharya Atre, B.A.B.T.T.D.(London) 2) Prof.B.p.Relekar, M.sc, B.Ed, M.phil.


U) Let's

                1) Let's go out to play, Sameer.-lehj vki.k [ksGk;yk ckgsj tkÅ ;k-

       2)Let's wait here, boys.- eqykauks] vki.k ;sFks Fkakcq;k-

           ojhy izdkjph okD;s Let's (Let + us ps feJ ¼laf{kIr½ :i) us lq: gksrkr- v'kk okD;kr cksy.kkjk o ,sd.kkjk fdaok ,sd.kkjs ;k nks?kkauhgh ,df=ri.ks djk;P;k dkgh d`rhpk cks/k gksrsk- Let's 'kCn okijrkuk cksy.kkjkgh R;k d`rhr lgHkkxh vlrks-

e.g- Let's go, Let's study, Let's play.


V) Neither and either as pronouns

A) Neither Eg.kts nksu O;Drh fdaok nksu oLrq ;kaiSfd dks.krhgh ukgh-

e.g-1) Neither of the two is hardworking. ¼;k nks?kkaiSdh dks.khgh esgurh ukgh-½

2) Neither of the two teams is strong. ¼nks?kkaiSdh dks.krkgh la?k  cyoku ukgh-½

B) Either Eg.kts nksu oLrq fdaok nksu O;DrhaiSdh dks.krhgh ,d-

e.g-1) Either of the boys can go. ¼R;k nksu eqykaiSdh dks.krhgh ,d tkÅ 'kdrks-½

      2) You may take either of the two books. ¼R;k nksu iqLrdkaiSdh rq dks.krsgh ,d ?ksÅ 'kdrksl½

C) Either/Neither QDr nksu oLrq fdaok nksu O;Drh ;kaP;kfo"k;h cksyrkukp okijk;ps vlrs-

D) Either of …fdaok neither drkZ Eg.kwu mi;ksx djrkr lacaf/kr fdz;kinkps usgeh ,dopuh :ip okijkos ykxrs-

fnysY;k nksUgh okD;kar vk<G.kkjk leku Hkkx mRrjkP;k okD;kr ,dp osG fyghrkr vleku Hkkxkrhy ,dkiqohZ neither vkf.k nql&;kiqohZ nor fygqu rs uO;k okD;kr ;ksX; tkxh fyghrkr- leku HkkXkkr vl.kkjh udkjkRed jpuk dk<qu gksdkjkRed jpuk okijrkr- dkj.k rks udkj neither vkf.k nor ;k 'kCnkauh O;Dr >kysykp vlrks-

e.g- But still the prince was not satisfied.

       But still he was not happy.

ojhy okD;kr But still the prince was not gk Hkkx lekup vkgs- Eg.kwup ;kps mRrj But still the prince was neither satisfied nor happy. vls gksbZy-


W) Get + adjective

     dkgh fdz;kinaps vFkZ iq.kZ dj.;kdjrk brj 'kCnkaph fo'ks"kr% adjective ¼fo'ks"k.ks½ ph enr ?;koh ykxrs-v'kk fdz;kinkauk incomplete verbs ¼viq.kZ fdz;kins½ Eg.krkr- 'Get' gs v'kk izdkjps usgeh okijkr ;s.kkjs fdz;kin vkgs-

e.g- 1) Get ready for the game.

       2) He got angry.

       3) It is getting dark.

                   v'kk okD;kar get gs fdz;kin become ;k vFkkZus okijysys vlrs- mnk%&get happy, get dark, get late, get old, get angry.


X) Forming questions

     baxzthe/;s iz'u r;kj djrkuk vxj iz'u fopkjrkuk nksu i/nrhus fopkjrkr-

a) Yes/No type OR verbal questions

b) WH-type questions


a) Yes/No type OR verbal questions

            ;k i/nrhr lkg¸k;dkjh fdz;kin okD;kP;k izFke fyfgrkr- uarj drkZ o uarj eq[; fdz;kin fygqu brj 'kCn fyghrkr- okD;kP;k 'ksoVh iz'ufpUg nsrkr- FkksMD;kr v'kk okD;kps lw+= iq<hy izek.ks gksbZy-

lq+=%&   A.V    +   Subject    +  Main verb   +   ?

     Assertive ¼fo/kkukRed½              Introgative ¼iz'ukFkZd½

1) John is going on a vacation.                        1) Is John going on a vacation?

2) Prem has written to his uncle.               2) Has Prem written to his uncle?

3) His uncle was in a military sevice. 3) Was his uncle in a military       sevice?

4) Rohit can drive a car.                            4) Can Rohit drive a car?

5) He will be in the library.                       5) Will he be in the library?



1)                Can, Could, will, would, shall, should, may, might , must, is, are, was, were, have, has, had. Gs loZ 'kCn fdz;kins vkgsr- R;kauk lkg;dkjh fdz;kins vls Eg.krkr- gh fdz;kins iz'u fopkjrkuk okD;kP;k izFke ;srkr vkf.k uarj drkZ ;srks- R;kauk Yes/No v'kh mRrjs ns.;kps dke djkos-

e.g- 1) Lata is ill. Is Lata ill? (Yes , Lata is ill. No, Lata is not ill.)

2) Suresh might get money. Might suresh get money?

(Yes, he might get money. No, he might not get money.)

2)      tj fnysY;k okD;ke/;s ojhyiSdh lkg;dkjh fdz;kin ulsy rj iz'ukFkZd okD; r;kj djrkuk okD;kP;k izFke do g;k lkg;dkjh fdz;kinkph :is okD;kP;k izFke okijrkr- Do ;k fdz;kinkl dummy 'do' vls Eg.krkr-tj fnysys okD; lk/;k orZekudkGkr vlsy vkf.k fdz;kinkyk 'S' fdaok 'es' izR;; ykxysyk vlsy rj iz'ukFkZd okD; r;kj djrkuk R;k okD;kP;k izFkeDoes gs lkg;dkjh fdz;kin fyghysp ikfgts- Does fyghY;kuarj yxsp drkZ fygkok vkf.k dR;kZiq<hy fdz;kinkl vlysys 'S' vkf.k 'es'  izR;; dk<qu orZekudkGh fdz;kin fygkos-

                                       Assertive                         Introgative

            1) Prem works in a factory.     Does Prem work in a factory?

            2) His sister goes to school.     Does his sister go to school?

            3) The sun rises in the cast.      Does the sun rise in the cast?

            4) She does her job very well.  Does she do her job very well?

Vhi%& ijarq okD; gs lk/;k orZekudkGkr vlsy vkf.k fdz;kinkl 'S' fdaok 'es' izR;; ykxysyk vlsy rj iz'ukFkZd okD; r;kj djrkuk okD;kP;k izFke Do gs fdz;kin okijkos-

e.g- 1) You study in the morning. Do you study in the morning?

  2) They go to college regularly. Do they go to college regularly?

3) fnysys okD; lk/;k HkqrdkGke/;s vlsy vkf.k R;k okD;ke/;s lkg;dkjh fdz;kin ulsy rj] rj R;kps iz'kukFkZd okD; r;kj djrkuk okD;kP;k izFke did gs lkg;dkjh fdz;kin fygkos- uarj drkZ fygkok vkf.k R;kiq<s fdz;kinkps eqG :i fygkos                 e.g- Mahesh wrote a letter.►Did Mahesh write a letter?

        India won the match. ►Did India win the match?


 b) WH-type questions

iz'u fopkj.;klkBh baxzth Hkk"kse/;s ts 'kCn okijrkr R;kaps aLisfyax WH v'kk v{kjkauh lq: gksrs- Eg.kqu R;kauk WH-type questions vls Eg.krkr- gs 'kCn O;Drh] oLrq] osG] fBdk.k] i/nr] izek.k] dkj.k] ekydh nk[kfo.;kps dke djrkr-







O;DrhlkBh&izFkekfoHkDrhe/;s okijrkr



O;DrhlkBh&fOnrh;kfoHkDrhe/;s okijrkr





















i/nr o izek.k

How much


u ekstrk ;s.kk&;k ukeklkBh

How much


QDr ekstrk ;s.kk&;k ukeklkBh


For what reason

dks.kR;k dkj.kkLro

Of whom / whose

dks.kkpk] T;kpk

Whose – so-ever / whose

dks.kkpkgh @ T;kdks.kkpk

Who-so / who ever

tks dks.kh @ dks.khrjh

Whom-so-ever►any person whom

dks.kkykgh @ T;k dks.kkykgh

Whom / To what person

dks.kR;k blekyk @ dks.kkyk

Who / what person

dks.krk ble @ dks.k] tks

Which –ever / which-so-ever►any one

tks dks.krk@ dks.krkgh tks ] tks

Which ►what one / ones

dks.krk ] th ] tks] ts

Whether ► which of two

nksgksaiSdh dks.krk @ gk fdaok rks

Where with ► with which/with what

T;kus ] d'kkus

Where-ever►at what ever place

T;k T;k fBdk.kh ] tsFks tsFks

Where – upon►upon what/after which

T;keqGs @ T;koj @ T;kP;kuarj

Where – to ►for what purpose


Where-so ever►at whatever place

T;kP;k fBdk.kh ] dksBssgh

Where of ► of which / of whom

T;kpk ] dks.kkyk

Where in ► in which

T;k fBdk.kh

Wherefor►why?/for which/this reason


Where by ► by which, by what

ts ,sdwu @ dk; ,sdwu

Where as ►since considering that

T;k vFkhZ] vls vkgs R;k vFkhZ

Where abouts ►the place where a person is


Where ► what place

dksBs ] tsFks ¼vkf.k rsFks½

When – ever ► at what ever time / every  time that

dks.kR;kgh osGh] dsaOgkgh] tsaOgk tsaOgk T;k&T;kosGh

Whence►from what place (and hence)

dksBqu tsFkqu] vkf.kEg.kqu];k dkj.kkLro

When ► at what /which time, in/at which

dsaOgk tsaOgk T;kosGh] dks.kR;kosGh

What-so-ever►anything that, no matter what


What ever ► all that

ts dkgh ] ts ts

What ► which, how great / that which, how big, which

dks.krk] fdrh eksBk] dks.krk] dso<k eksBk] tks rks-


fVi%& Who 'kCnkus iz'u fopkjrkuk do gs fdz;kin oki: u;s-

e.g- 1) Who are you?►I am a teacher.

2) Who pays for your studies?►My father pays for my studies.

3) Which is this place?►This is hill station.

4) Which is your pen? ►The red one.

5) When do you go to bed?►I go to bed at 10 p.m

6) When will you go there?►Perhaps, tomorrow.

7) Where are you going?►I am going for walk.

8) Where do you live?►I live in Delhi.

9) Why are you sitting here?►I am waiting for someone.

10)Why do you take so much milk?►To keep fit for work.


Y) Use Must + have + pp / May + have + pp         


Must + have + past participle      

tsaOgk ,[kknh x`ghr /kjyh tkrs vkf.k ?kM.;kph Bke 'kD;rk orZoyh tkrs rsaOgk Must + have + past participle   ;k jpuspk okij djrkr-

e.g- 1) The king assumed that Hirachand had met Birbal.

► He said ," You must have met Birbal."

2) The father assumed that his son has succeeded in the exam.

► The father said," You must have succeeded in the exam."


May + have + pp

     tsaOgk [kk=h ulrs vkf.k vki.k 'kD;rk orZorks rsaOgk May + have + pp gh okD;jpuk djrkr-


1) Mr. Patil is not at home. He may have gone to the market or to his friends.

2) He set out for karad in the morning. He may have

          Here we are not sure, and express just a possibility.

3) I have written him a letter. He may have got it. I am not sure.


Z) Such + a + adjective + noun / Such + adj + noun

            la[;sr ekstrk ;s.kk&;k ,dopuh ukekcjkscj  Such + a + adjective + noun v'kh okD;jpuk djrkr- rlsp la[;srqu ekstrk ;s.kk&;k vusdopuh ukekcjkscj Such + adj + noun v'kh okD;jpuk okijrkr gs y{kkr ?;kos-

Read this-

1) There is a big tree in our school garden.

2) I have never seen such a big tree.

3) I have never experienced such lovely weather.


1) Have you ever seen such a beautiful building?

2) Can you  go for a walk in such cold weather.

3) Satish is such a clever boy that no one can compete with him.

4)They have never played such strange games.


AA) Use- While

            While pk mi;ksx rhu i/nrhus djrkr-

a) For example- I heard the gunshot while I walked.

    ;k okD;kr nksu fdz;k ,dkp osGh ?kMY;k gs ueqn dsys vkgs- QDr d`rh ,dkp osGh ?kMyh vkgs-

b) For example- The glass fell down while she was cleaning it.

          ;k okD;krgh nksu fdz;k ?kMysY;k nk[koY;k vkgsr- i.k ,d d`rh pkyw fLFkrhe/;s vlrkuk nqljh d`rh ?kMyh vkgs-

c) For example- I was reading a story book while my sister was writing a letter.  ;k okD;kr nksUgh fdz;k ,dkp osGh pkyq gksR;k gs nk[kfoys vkgs-

    HkwrdkGkr ?kMysY;k nksu fdz;k nk[korkuk while P;k okD;ke/;s viq.kZ HkqrdkG okijrkr- 'while' us nksu viq.kZ okD;s tksMrkukgh viq.kZ HkqrdkGkpkp okij djrkr-


BB) After / before / while / on + ing form of verb

For example-   

1)    After he had finished the work, he went out for a cup of tea.

2)    After  finishing  his work, he went out for a cup of tea.

;k izdkjke/;s nksu fdz;k ?kMr vlysY;k nk[kfoysY;k vkgsr- ifgyh fdz;k ?kMY;k uarj nqljh ?kMyh vkgs- ifgyh jpuk had  +  pp v'kh vkgs- nql&;k jousr after  + fdz;kinkyk ing  ykowu r;kj gks.kkjs uke mi;ksxkr vk.kys vkgs- nksUgh okD;kpk drkZ ek= ,dp vkgs-


CC) Could + have +pp

For example-

1) I could have passed the examination, if I had studied properly.

2) He could have won the race if he had practiced harder.

    In these sentence 'could have' is followed by the past participle. The above sentence mean possibility or likelihood of the action.

ojhy nksu okD;s ,[kkn;k d`rhph 'kD;rk fdaok laHkkO;rk n'kZforkr-


DD) Use Many / Much / Some + of

For example-

1)    He counted many pages of the book but some of them remain to be counted.

2)    Much of the water drained away.

3)    Some tea was spilt over his shirt and he felt ashamed.

Some/much/many gh Quantitative ¼izek.kn'kZd½ fo'ks"k.ks (adjective) vkgsr-

 • Much- ;kpk okij ekstrk u ;s.kk&;k ukeklkscr djrkr-

 • Many- ;kpk okij ekstrk ;s.kk&;k ukeklkscr djrkr-

 • Some- ;kpk okij ekstrk o u ekstrk ;s.kk&;k ukek lkscr djrkr-



EE) Use 'As'

     (Degree pk Hkkx igk-) ;sFks dkgh mnkgj.ks fnysyh vkgsr rh vH;klk-

1)    Much more forest land will  vanish by AD2000. Each year an area of forest as big as Hungary falls under the axe.

► Much more land will vanish by AD2000 as each year an area of forest as big as of Hungary falls under the axe.

2)    Each year a big area of forest falls under the axe. The area is equal to the area of Hungary.

► Each year an area of forest as big as Hungary falls under the axe.

3)    The police men  were alarmed. The king too was equally alarmed.

► The king too was as alarmed as the policemen.

4)    The date contains plenty of iron in it. It will help in the growth of children.

► The date will help in the growth of children as it contains plenty of iron in it. /As the date contains plenty of iron in it, it will help in the growth of children.

5)    Left handers have right brain dominance. They face many other peculiar problems.

As left handers have right brain dominance, they face many other peculiar problems.


FF) Use 'Because'

Because- ;kpk vFkZ dkj.k vlk vkgs-tsaOgk vki.k dks.krsgh dkj.k lkaxrks R;kosGh Because gk 'kCn fygko;kl fol: u;s-

For example-

1)    For hundreds of years I have taken good care of people. That is the reason.

► That is because I have taken good care of people.

2)    These figures are called Roman figures. We learnt them from the Roman people.

► These figures are called Roman figures because we learnt them from the Roman people.

3)    The drink cannot turn to ice.Icy crystals need something to hold on to.

► The drink cannot turn to ice because icy crystals need something to hold on to.

4)    Coffee was a strong poison and should be prohibited.

► Coffee should be prohibited because it was a strong poison.

5)    Such reactions are not reported patients don't recognize them.

► Such reactions are not reported because patients don't recognize them.


GG) Use 'That'

That – Eg.kts ^fd*- that okijysyh dkgh okD;s [kkyhy izek.ks

For example-

1)    Some how the soil, the light, the water and the air are mutually interdependent. They knew this.

►They knew that somehow the soil, the light, the water and the air are mutually interdependent.

2)    This balance is fragile. Today we are beginning to understand this.

► Today we are beginning to understand this that this balance is fragile.

3)    My turn would never come. I felt so.

► I felt so that my turn would never come.

4)    I always advise parents. They should give their children two to four dates to chew in the morning.

► I always advise parents that they should give their children two to four dates to chew in the morning.

5)    The old woman had green eyes.She remembered this.

► She remembered that the old woman had green eyes.


HH) Ing form and By + ing form of the verb

1) He established a network of colleges for imparting, higher education.

♦ The word 'imparting' represents an action. This is called a verb participle.

2) The mahatma's stirring speech left such an indelible impression on him.

♦ The word 'stirring' qualifies the noun speech and hence it is the participle adjective.

3) The writings of Jyotirao Phule inspired Bhaurao.

♦ Writing is used as the subject of the verb ' inspired' does the work of     a noun, it is called gerund.

Sleeping too much is a bad habit.

She loves traveling.


II) Modal Auxillaries

¼iku ua   igk½

JJ) Direct and Indirect speech / Narration


Direct speech- izR;{k dFku

Indirect speech /Reported speech- vizR;{k dFku

Speaker/ reporter - ¼fLidj@jhiksVZj½ & cksy.kkjk

Reporting verb  -¼jhiksVhax OgcZ½ & lkg;dkjh fdz;kin

Listener- ¼fyluj½ & ,sd.kkjk

    ,[kkn;k O;Drhps cksy.ks tlsP;k rls lkax.ks fdaok vorj.k foUgkae/;s mn~/k`r dj.ks ;kyk izR;{k dFku (direct speech) Eg.krkr- rj ,[kk|k O;Drhps cksy.ks frljh O;Drh lkaxrs fdaok ekaMrs rsaOgk R;kyk vizR;{k dFku(indirect speech /Reported speech)  vls Eg.krkr-


Ram   said to  Seeta,  " I will  go  now."



(Speaker)Reporting ( listener)   (Direct speech)



Direct speech gs ikp izdkjP;k okD;kae/;sp dsys tkrs-

1)    Assertive sentences-fo/kkukFkhZ okD;

2)    Interrogative sentences-iz'ukFkZd okD;

3)    Imperative sentences-vkKkFkhZ okD;

4)    Exclamatory sentences-mn~xkjokpd okD;

5) Opative sentences-bPNkizn'kZd okD;

1) Assertive sentences-fo/kkukFkhZ okD;

   fo/kkukFkhZ okD;kps indirect speech e/;s :ikarj dj.ks-

Speaker +  reporting verb  +  listener  +  that  +  indirect speech



For example –

1) Amit said to sunil, " I like the cricket match."

► Amit told sunil that he liked the cricket match.


tj izR;{k okD; gs fo/kkuk/khZ vlsy rj vorj.k fpUg dk<qu Vkdqu R;k,soth that ;k mHk;kUo;h vO;;pk okij djrkr- okD;krhy drkZ o deZ gs cksy.kk&;k fdaok ,sd.kk&;kP;k fyaxkuq:I cnyrkr- okD;kpk dkG gk HkqrdkG dsYkk tkrks-

        dkG           Indirect speech e/;s cny.kkjk dkG   

simple present                                            simple past

present continuous                                          past continuous

present perfect                                       past perfect

simple past                                            past perfect

past continuous                                   perfect continuous


For example –

1)    I said ," I want to speak to her."

     ► I said that I wanted to speak to her.

     2) She said to him," You are giving me a book."

     ► She said to him that he was giving her a book.

     3) They said," We have finished our work."

     ► Thet said that they had finished their work.

      4) She said to me," I have been living in Pune."

     ► She told me that she had been living in Pune.

      5) The teacher said to him," You may come in."

     ► The teacher told him that he might come in.


2)Interrogative sentences-iz'ukFkZd okD;

iz'ukFkhZ okD;kps indirect speech e/;s :ikarj dj.ks-


Speaker + asked/questioned+ listener+ wh 'kCn +indirect speech



iz'ukFkZd okD;kps nksu izdkj iMrkr-

a)     WH- questions

b)    Verbal questions / Yes / No type questions


a) WH- questions

;kps lq= ojhy izek.ks- tj izR;{k okD; gs iz'ukFkZd vlsy o R;kaph lq:okr 'WH' iz'ukFkZd 'kCnkus gksr vlsy rj vorj.k fpUg dk<qu R;k,soth rksp 'kCn okijrkr-

For example –

1) He asked," Why are you so tried?"

     ► He asked why he was so tired.

     2) She asked," Where is the book?"

     ► She asked where the book was.

     3) Sheela asked Meena," Why don't you celebrate your birthday?"

     ► Sheela asked Meena why she didn't celebrate her birthday.

     4) He said to her," When will your mother come?"

     ► He asked her when her mother would come.

     5) Noor said to her mother," Where are my books?"

     ► Noor asked her mother where her books were.

izR;{k iz'ukFkZd okD;kps indirect djrkuk iz'kufpUg dk<qu Vkdkos o 'ksoVh iq.kZfojke n;kok-


b) Verbal questions / Yes / No type questions

Speaker+asked/questioned+listener+if/whether+indirect speech



         tj izR;{k okD; direct gs iz'ukFkZd vlwu R;kph lq:okr lkg;dkjh fdz;kinkus gksr vlsy rj vorj.k fpUg dk<qu R;k,soth if  gs mHk;kUo;h vO;; okijrkr- okD; ljG d:u HkqrdkGkr fyghrkr-

For example –

1) She asked her mother," Are you preparing tea?"

► She asked her mother if she was preparing tea.

2) They asked her," Did you like the house?"

► They asked her if she had liked the house.

3) I said," Is he going to the market?"

► I asked whether he was going to the market.

4) Ramesh asked," Are they filling the tanks?"

► Ramesh asked whether they were filling the tank.

5) He said to his sister ," Have you studied physics?"

► He asked his sister if she had studied physics.


2)    Imperative sentences-vkKkFkhZ okD;


Speaker + ordered,requested,wished + listener¼vlsyrj½ + to + indirect speech



          tj direct okD; gs vkKkFkhZ vlsy rj R;kps indirect e/;s :ikarj djrkuk vorj.k fpUg dk<qu R;k,soth to okijrkr- okD;kP;k dkGkr dks.krkgh cny gksr ukgh- tj direct vkKkFkhZ okD;kr don't ;k 'kCnkpk okij dsysyk vlsy rj not to us lq:okr djrkr- Reporting verb gs requested, ordered vls ?ksrkr-

For example –

1) She requested me," Please give me your pen."

► She requested to give her my pen.

2) They said," Give us leave."

► They requested to give them leave.

3) She said," Show me your ticket."

► She requested  to show her his ticket.

4) The inspector said," Send the man inside."

► The inspector ordered to Send the man inside.

5) She said," Don't tell me lies."

► She requested not to tell her lies.


4) Exclamatory sentences-mn~xkjokpd okD;


Speaker + exclaimed +  listener  + that +indirect speech



            v'kk okD;kr listener vlrksp vls ukgh- mn~xkjokpd okD; izFke fo/kkukFkhZ d:u ?;k exp indirect e/;s :ikarj djk- mn~xkjokpd fpUg dk<qu iq.kZfojke n;k]iq.kZ mn~xkjokpd okD; la{khIr e/;s fnysys vlsy rj] rs izFke iq.kZ d:u ?;k uarj fo/kkukFkhZ djk o uarj indirect e/;s djk-

mnk%& great! – How great you are!

What o how ;k 'kCnk,soth very, great, indeed, certainly lkj[ks 'kCn okijrkr-

For example –

1) She said, " What a beautiful scene it is!"

► She exclaimed that it was a very beautiful scene.

2) They said," What a great king shivaji was!"

► They exclaimed that shivaji was a very great king.

3) She said," What a narrow way!"

► She exclaimed that it was a very narrow way.

4) He exclaimed," How wise Birbal was!"

► He exclaimed that Birbal was very wise.

5) They said ," What a noble youth!"

► They exclaimed that indeed he was a noble youth.



  tj direct okD;kr Let us, Let me, Let him, Let them v'kk 'kCnkauh lq:okr vlsy rj Let Eg.kts shall fdaok will letkos o us Eg.kts we, me Eg.kts I , him Eg.kts he, her Eg.kts she, them Eg.kts they vls 'kCn ?ksÅu okD; ljG d:u HkqrdkGkr fygkos-

1) They said," Let's have tea."

►They suggested that they would have tea.

          ;sFks Let P;k ,soth shall fdaok will ?ksrys] us P;k ,soth they ?ksrys o vizR;{k okD;kaP;k fu;ekizek.ks we shall ps HkwrdkGh :ikarj they would >kys-

e.g- She said," Let me sing a song."

► She said that she will pass the examination.

·        Reporthing verb HkqrdkGkr vlssy rj Direct speech e/khy fdz;kinkapk ¼;ksX;½ HkqrdkG djkok- ek= Reporting verb HkwrdkGkr vlsy vkf.k direct speech e/khy okD; universal truth ¼f=dkyckf/kr lR;½ fdaok habitual truth ¼lo;hps lR; vlsy rj½ direct speech e/khy fdz;kinakpk dkG cnyq u;s-

·        Direct ps indirect djrkuk dkgh cny-


Has/have -had

Today- That day

Can- Could

May- Might

Shall- Should

Must- Had to

Will- Would

Like- Liked

Am,is- Was

Put- Put

Are- Were

Go- Went

I - He, she

Come- Came

Me- Him, her

We- They

My- His, her

Myself- Himself, herself

Mine- His, hers

Us- His, her

You- He, she, him, her

Ourselves- Themselves

This- That

These- Those

Here- There

To night- That night

Now- Then

Tomorrow- The next day

Ago- Before

Yesterday- The day before

Yours- Him,her

Last night- The previous night


Come- Go


vorj.k fpUgs]sir, my boy, madam rlsp]mn~xkjokpd 'kCn Oh!, Alas!, Hurrah!, o! gs dk<qu Vkdkosr-

• Direct e/khy dks.krsgh okD; izFke fo/kkukFkhZ djkos o uarjp indirect djkos-

• He, she, it, they vkY;kl indirect djrkuk cnyq u;s-


KK) Affixes,Suffixes and prefixes


    vki.k njjkst vla[; 'kCn cksyrks] fyghrks] vkf.k okprks 'kCnkaP;kf'kok; laHkk"k.k dj.ks v'kD; O;kdj.kdR;kZauh loZ 'kCnkauk QDr vkB izdkjke/;s foHkkxysys vkgs- ;kykp ^'kCnkaP;k tkrh* Eg.krkr-

    ;kf'kok; vki.kkl leku o fo:/n vFkkZaps 'kCn okijkos ykxrkr- vki.k cksyrkuk vxj fyghrkuk ,dkp mPpkjkus ijarq osxosxGs vFkZ vl.kkjs 'kCn okijrks- v'kk 'kCnkauk baxzth Hkk"ksr Similar sounding words fdaok Homonyms ¼fgeksfuEl½ vls Eg.krkr-

e.g- Dye-die, tell-tale

    v'kk izdkjs vki.kkl vla[; 'kCn okijkos ykxrkr- R;klkBh vki.kkl 'kCnkaph fufeZrh dj.;kl f'kdys ikghts- eqG 'kCnkiklwu uke] fo'ks"k.k] fdz;kin] fdz;kfo'ks"k.k fdaok fo:/n vFkkZpk 'kCn r;kj dj.;klkBh [kkyhy izR;;kapk    vH;kl djkok-

1) Root words-¼:V oMZl½ & eqG 'kCn

2) Affixes-¼vfQDlsl½ & iqoZizR;;

3) Prefixes-¼izfQDlsl½ & iqoZizR;;

4) Suffixes-¼lfQDlsl½ & iqoZizR;;


1) Root words-¼:V oMZl½ & eqG 'kCn

    T;k 'kCnkyk dks.krkgh izR;; ykxysyk ulrks vkf.k T;k 'kCnkaps vo;o iMr ukghr] R;k 'kCnkl ^ewG 'kCn* Eg.krkr- eqG 'kCnkyk Lor%pk vFkZ vlrks-

e.g- Rich, black, dog, boy, weak, friend, love.


2) Affixes-¼vfQDlsl½ & iqoZizR;;

          eqG 'kCnkP;k izFke vxj 'ksoVh ts izR;; ykxrkr R;kauk Affixes  vls Eg.krkr-


3) Prefixes-¼izfQDlsl½ & iqoZizR;;

    eqG 'kCnkP;k izFke tks izR;; ykxrks R;k izR;;kl ^izFke ;s.kkjk milxZ* Eg.krkr- baxzth Hkk"ksr v'kk izR;;kauk Prefixes Eg.krkr-

e.g- (in,ir,im.)

1) rich-enrich 2) prison-imprison

Arch- (chief, main, highest-ranking) – archpriest- ¼eq[; iknzh½

Out- (more , better than) – out-size- ¼ckgsj cktql½ outsmart, outrun (verbs)

Pseudo- (false, pretended)- pseudonym- ¼[kksVsuko½

a- (not , without) – amoral,apolitical


♦ There are prefixes of number such as: la[;kokpd uke r;kj dj.;klkBh

Uni-Mono-(one) Unidirectional, monologue.

Duo, bi – (two) duologue, bisect nqHkkx.ks

Tri – (three) tricolour frjaxk

Quad, quart – (four) quadruped pkj ik;kapk izk.kh

Pent- , quin- (five) pentagon ¼iapdksu½, quintuplets. iapdMh

Sex- (six) – sextet, sexagon "kVdksu

Sept-(seven) septuagenarian lRrj o"kkZpk

Oct- (eight) octagon v"Vdksu

Pan-(all),Fore-(before), Multi-(many), counter-(opposite in direction)

Sub-(below,under), Hyper-(extreme), Post-(after), Trans-(beyond)


♦ There negative prefixes such as: ¼udkjkFkhZ izR;;½




Root words

ewG 'kCn


fo:/n vFkkZps 'kCn

Un- vu&ukgh





In- bZu&v]fo:/n





Im- bZe& ukgh]v





Dis- fMl& fo:/n





Mis- fel& okbZV]xSj





Non- ukWu& fo:/n]v





Ir- bZj & v--cs--





Il- bZy& fu--cs--





Anti- vWaVh& fo:/n





Counter- dkWaVj& fo:/n





De- Ms&





Mal- eky&okbZV]xSj






4) Suffixes-¼lfQDlsl½ & iqoZizR;;

    eqG 'kCnkP;k 'ksoVh tks izR;; ykxrks R;k izR;;kl Suffixes Eg.krkr-

e.g- 1) Run-runner 2) play-player 3) Act-active 4) Quick-quickly 5) Mad-madden.

fVi%& uohu 'kCn r;kj dj.;klkBh gs izR;; mi;ksxh iMrkr- uke] fo'ks"k.k] fdz;kin] fdz;kfo'ks"k.k vkf.k fo:/n vFkkZps 'kCn dls r;kj gksrkr- ;kph ekghrh [kkyh fnysyh vkgs-


A) Make Noun-

     uke r;kj dj.;klkBh fdz;kinkP;k 'ksoVh fo'ks"k.kkP;k 'ksoVh [kkyhy izR;; ykorkr- rlsp lkekU; ukekiklqu Hkkookpd uke r;kj dj.;klkBh –ship,-hood, -dom gs izR;; okijrkr-

    { A wellknown English poet, Words worth, once complained that there are not enough nouns in English. He perhaps needed nouns to name his feelings, impressions and experiences. English has a number of noun-forming suffixes with which you can form nouns from verbs and adjective. This is very creative process and can help you develop your vocabulary.}











To drive





To act

vfHku; dj.ks




To manage

O;oLFkk dj.ks




To decide





To act

vfHku; dj.ks




To found

ik;k ?kky.ks




To rely

voyacqu jkg.ks




To differ

Qjd dj.ks




To please

[kqi dj.ks




To lie

[kksVs cksy.ks














To arrive

;sÅu iksgksp.ks





































dksVkZpk gqdqe



cpko dj.ks







dk;epk jkg.ks



HkjHkjkV gks.ks




          -ing gk izR;; Qkj egRokpk vkgs- dkgh mnkgj.ks [kkyhy izek.ks

(-ing  suffix is also a very productive  to form nouns from verbs.)

e.g- Run – Running , Sing – Singing, Walk – Walking.

1) Their running between the wickets was really wonderful.

2) We heard his singing for the first time in a private.

3) Walking is a good exercise.


y{kkr Bsok%& fdz;kinkaP;k 'ksoVh er izR;; ykoqu vla[; ukes r;kj dsyh tkrkr- gh ukes O;olk;] O;kikj] /kank] nk[ko.;kph dkes djrkr-

e.g- paint- painter, Turn- turner, Fit- fitter.

fo'ks"k.kkP;k 'ksoVh ness izR;; ykoqu vla[; Hkkookpd ukes r;kj djrkr-

e.g- Mad-madness, ¼osMk&osMki.kk½ Ill-illness ¼vktkjh&vktkjhi.k½] Lazy-lazyness ¼vkGk'kh&vkGk'khi.kk½ Sweet-sweetness ¼xksM&xksMi.kk½

vR;ar egRokps %&  dkgh ukes fdz;kinkaP;k vkf.k fo'ks"k.kkaP;k Lisfyax e/;s cny d:u r;kj dsyh tkrkr v'kkosGh R;kauk dks.krkgh izR;; ykoyk tkr ukgh- gh ukes vR;ar izkFkfed Lo:ikrhy 'kCn vkgsr- Eg.kwu v'kh ukes rksaMikB djk-





tx.ks] jkg.ks






fl/n dj.ks






lYyk ns.ks




































jDrL=ko gks.ks






vka?kksG dj.ks






[kjs eku.ks





♦ suffixes classified-

a) Abstract nouns

b) Concrete nouns


a) Abstract nouns

                              These suffixes signify state of act of, quality of .

-acy- Demoracy & yksd'kkgh] –Age  - bondage – xqykefxjh] –ance – severance, repentance, diligenece. –ation – Civilization –laLd`rh] –dom –Freedom – Lokra™;] –hood – Byhood, -ice – avarice – ykylk] –ise – communism – lerkokn] –ment – Government – 'kklu] –ness – happiness – lqnSo] –ship – partnership – Hkkxhnkjh] –ty (-ity) – Modesty – uezrk-


b) Concrete nouns

                             These suffixes signify , one who does.

-an  (-ant, -ent) – partisan ¼i{kkfHkeku½, artisan

-ard (-art, -ary) – drunkard ¼nk:ckt½] braggart, notary

-Ee (-eer, ess)- legatee ¼okjl½] auctioneer, figress.

-er (-ar, -ier, -or) – laboures¼d"Vdjh½] scholar, clothier.

-ic (-ist, -ite, -ly, -te) – nomadic ¼HkVd.kkjk½] sadist, jacobite.


B) Make Adjective -

              ukekcn~ny vf/kd ekfgrh lkax.kk&;k 'kCnkl ^fo'ks"k.k* vls Eg.krkr- gk 'kCn ukekps pkaxys xq.k] okbZV xq.k] la[;k] izek.k v'kh ekfgrh lkaxrks- fo'ks"k.k r;kj dj.;klkBh baxzth Hkk"kse/;s [kkyhy suffixes 'kCnkaP;k 'ksoVh ykorkr-

1)-Able/ible  2)-Al  3)-An  4)- En  5)- Ful  6)-Ic 7)-Ical  8)- Ive  9)- Less 

10) -Like  11) -Ous  12) -Y  13) -Some  14) -Th  15) -Word  16) -Ly  17) –Ish 18) -Ed  19) -Ary  20) -Esque  21) -phobia 22) -Ing. 23) –cide 24) –mania 25) –worthy 26) -some 27) –ward 28) – scope 29) –ify 30) –ize 31) –ac 32) –ulent 33) - ile

1) -Able/ible 

                  Suit – Suitable - ¼te.ks & ;ksX;½] Agree – Agreeble - ¼lger gks.ks &djkj½] Rely – Reliable - ¼voyacqu jkg.ks & fo'oluh;½] Pity – Pitiable - ¼n;k & n;uh;½] Read – Readable - ¼okp.ks & okpuh;½] Neglect – Negligible - ¼nqyZ{k dj.ks & nqyZ{kfu;½ movable, irresistible ¼vckf/kr½-


2) -Al 

                  gk izR;; ukekP;k 'ksoVh ykÅu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr-

 Music – Musical - ¼laxhr & laxhrij½] Cluture – Cultural -¼laLd`rh & lkaLd`frd½] Function – Functional - ¼dk;Zdze & dk;Zjr½] Occasion – Occasional - ¼izlax & izklafxd½] Education – Educational - ¼f'k{k.k & 'kS{kf.kd½] Nation – National - ¼jk"Vª & jk"Vªh;½] Nature – Natural –¼fulxZ & uSlfxZd½-


3) -An 

       gk izR;; HkkSxksfyd fo'ks"k.kkyk ykÅu R;kiklwu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr-

India – Indian - ¼Hkkjr & Hkkjrh;½] Africa – African - ¼vkfQzdk & vkfQzdu½] America – American - ¼vesfjdk & vesfjdu½] Russia – Russian - ¼jf'k;k & jf'k;u½] Victoria –Victorian - ¼OghDVksfj;k & OghDVksfj;u½] Elizabeth – Elizabethan - ¼,fy>kcsFk & ,fy>kcsFku½


4) En 

         gk izR;; ukekP;k 'ksoVh ykÅu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr-

Wood – Wooden - ¼ykdqM & ykdMh½] Wool – Woolen- ¼yksdj & yksdjh½] Earth – Earthen - ¼i`Foh & i`Fohpk@ekrhpk½] Gold – Golden - ¼lksus & lksusjh½] Silk – Silken - ¼js'khe & js'keh½-


5) -Ful 

         Hand  – Handful - ¼gkr &gkrHkj@eqBHkj½] Mouth – Mouthful - ¼rksaM & rksaMHkj½] Faith – Faithful - ¼fo'okl & fo'oluh;½] Wake – Wakeful - ¼tkx & tkx`r½- Spiteful, vengeful, hateful.


6) -Ic

         Tragedy – Tragic - ¼'kksdkafrdk & 'kksdkafrdsrhy ½] Energy – Energetic - ¼mRlkg & mRlkgh½] System – Systemetic - ¼i/nr & i/nr'khj½] Emphasis – Emphatic - ¼tksj & tksjnkj½] Phone – Phonetic - ¼Qksu & Qksukps½] Milton – Miltonic - ¼feYVu & feYVups½- anaemic, inimical, maniacal ¼osMkfilk½


7) -Ical 

         History – Historical - ¼bfrgkl & ,sfrgkfld½] Economic – Economical - ¼dkVdlj & dkVdkjh½] Classic – Classical - ¼mRd`"V & ljl½] Critic – Critical - ¼fVdk & fVdkdq'ky½] Practice – Practical- ¼d`fr & O;ogk;Z½ Philosophy – Philosophical - ¼rRoKku & rkfRod½-



8) -Ive 

                   gk izR;; vR;ar egRokpk vkgs- gk izR;; ykoqu vla[; fo'ks"k.k djrk ;srkr-

Act – Active - ¼d`rh dj.ks & piG½] Attract – Attractive - ¼vkdf"kZr dj.ks & vkd"kZd½] Talk – Talkative - ¼cksy.ks & cMcM;k½] Create – Creative - ¼fuekZ.k dj.ks & l`tu'khy½] Describe – Describtive - ¼o.kZu dj.ks & o.kZukRed½] Produce – Productive - ¼fuekZ.k dj.ks & mRikfnr½-


9) - Less 

                   gk izR;; ukekP;k 'ksoVh ykoqu vla[; fo'ks"k.ks r;kj djrkr- gk izR;; ful P;k fo:/n vkgs- gk izR;; fdz;kinkP;k 'ksoVhgh okijrkr-

Care – Careless - ¼dkGth & fu"dkGth½] Hope – Hopeless - ¼vk'kk & O;FkZ½] End – Endless - ¼'ksoVh & vuar½] Rest – Restless - ¼foJkarh & cspSu½] Doubt – Doubtless - ¼'kadk & fu%'kad½] Shame – Shameless - ¼e;kZnk&ve;kZn½] Cease – Ceaseless - ¼Fkkac.ks & vfojr] v[kaM½-


10) -Like 

         gk izR;; ukekP;k 'ksoVh tkMwu fo'ks"k.k r;kj dj.kslkBh okijrkr-

Child – Childlike - ¼eqy & eqyklkj[kk½] Lady – Ladylike - ¼L=h & L=hlkj[kh½] God – Godlike - ¼nso & nsokleku½] Owl – Owllike - ¼?kqcM & ?kqcMlkj[kk½-


11) -Ous 

         gk izR;; vR;ar egRokpk vkgs- ukekP;k 'ksoVh gk izR;; ykowu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr-

Fury – Furious - ¼larki & larkiysyk½]Mystery – Mysterious - ¼xq< & vukdyuh;½] Industry – Industrious - ¼mn;ksx & esgurh½] Injury – Injurious - ¼gkuh@uqdlku & vik;dkjd@?kkr dj.kkjk½] Poison – Poisonous - ¼fo"k & fo?kkrd½-


12) -Y 

         gk izR;; ukekP;k vxj fdz;kinkP;k 'ksoVh ykoqwu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr- gs fo'ks"k.k LoHkko]xq.k nk[kfors R;kpk vFkZ having the character of, full of fdaok composed of vlk gksrks-

Bone – Bony - ¼gkM & gkMdqGk½] Anger – Angry - ¼jkx & jkxhV½] Leaf – Leafy - ¼ikus ikukauh Hkjysyk½ Noise – Noisy - ¼xksaxkV & xtctysyk½] Stone – Stoney - ¼nxM & nxMh½] Rose – Rosy - ¼xqykc & xqykch½] Pink – Pinky - ¼xqykch & xqykch jaxkpk½-


13) -Some

                   Fear – Fearsome - ¼fHkrh & fHkrhnk;d½] Quarrel – Quarrelsome- ¼HkkaM.k & HkkaM[kksj½] Trouble – Troublesome -¼ =kl & =klnk;d½] Tire – Tiresome - ¼daVkGk & daVkGok.kk½-


14) -Th

         gk izR;; izeq[k vadkaP;k 'ksoVh ykoqu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr-

Nine – Nineth - ¼uÅ & uook½] Four – Fourth - ¼pkj & pkSFkk½] Five – Fifth - ¼ikp & ikpok½] Hundred – Hundredth - ¼'kaHkj & 'kaHkjkok½-


15) -Ward

         gk izR;; ukekP;k 'ksoVh tksMrkr- gh ukes fBdk.k nk[kforkr vkf.k R;kiklqu r;kj gks.kkjs fo'ks"k.k fn'kk nk[korkr-

Home – Homeward - ¼?kj & ?kjkdMs½] East – Eastward - ¼iqoZ & iqosZdMs½] Land – Landward - ¼tehu & tehuhdMs½] Back – Backward - ¼ekxs & ekxklysyk½-


16) -Ly

         Love – Lovely - ¼izse & izseG½] Coward – Cowardly- ¼fHk=k & fHk=ki.kk½] King – Kingly - ¼jktk & jktksfpr½] Man – Manly ¼euq"; & enkZuh½-


17)  -Ish

         gk izR;; ukekP;k 'ksoVh tksMwu fo'ks"k.k r;kj djrkr- vls fo'ks"k.k ,[kkn;k O;Drhps ;ksX; Lo:i lkax.;kps dke djrs- rlsp Hkk"kk] jk"Vª;Ro] oa'k] ns'k b- laca/kh ekfgrh nsrs-

Child – Childish - ¼iksj & iksjdV½] England – English - ¼baXyM & baXyh'k½


18) -Ed  - walked , talked, played, smashed.


19) -ory 

                   Admonitory¼rkfdn ns.ks½  , Hortatory


20) -Esque (like something)

                   Picturesque. ¼gwcsgwc½


21) –phobia (fear or hatered of something)


22) –Ing – walking, talking, playing.

23) –cide (killer,killing) [kq.k] gR;k

         Suicide- vkRegR;k , germicide , homicide.

24) –mania (obsession of something) d'kkus rjh iNkM.ks


25) –worthy (deserving,fit for)

                   Trustworthy, roadworthy

26) –some (causing or making)cufo.ks mRikfnr dj.ks

                   Troublesome, Tiresome

27) –ward (in the direction of) P;k fn'ksus

                   Northward, Downward

28) – scope (instrument of observing)fufj{k.kkps lk/ku

                   Microscope, stethoscope

29) –ify

                   Class – Classify - ¼oxZ & oxhZdj.k½] Test – Testify - ¼dlksVh &fu{kqu lkax.ks½] Terror – Terrify - ¼vkrad & ?kkc:u lksM.ks½] False – Falsify - ¼[kksVs & [kksVs cksy.ks½

30) –ize

                   Real – Realize - ¼lR; & lR;vksG[k.ks½] Standard – Standardize - ¼izek.kc/n & izek.kc/n dj.ks½] Victim – Victimize - ¼cGh & cGh ?ks.ks½] Terror – Terrorize - ¼vkrad & ng'kr clfo.ks½] Colony – Colonize - ¼olkgr & uoh olkgr dj.ks½


31) –ac


32) –ulent

                   Succulent ¼jlkG½

33) – ile

                   Ductile ¼uje½-


♦Verb suffixes

                   These suffixes signify to make current words.

-ate – procreate ¼iSnk dj.ks½, animate, perpetuate.

-en – moisten¼vksylj½, deepen, loosen, quicken.

-fy- qualify¼ik=½, fortify, stupify.

-ize (-ise) –criticize¼fVdk dj.ks½, sterilize, fertilize, magnetize .




-dom (abstraction) – freedom, wisdom

-fold (number, quantity) – tenfold, manifold

-less (lacking, wanting) – helpless, thoughtless

-ling (used to form diminutives or to express disparagement) – yearling, gosling, fondling, princeling, underling.

-ly (like, similar) closely, hopefully, meagerly, evenly

-most ( indicates superlative degree) – foremost, hindmost, inmost.

-th (state of, quality of ) – wealth, dearth, warmth.

-ward (in the direction of) – northward, inward, outward.

-wise (way, manner)- lengthwise, crosswise, otherwise.

-y (full of, having the qualities of)- greedy, nosy, bony, slimy, angry, slangy.


LL) Figure of speech(poetic device) vyadkj

            Figure of speech gk Hkkx dforsr vk<Grks- vyadkjkeqGs L=h t'kh laqnj okVrs r'khp dforkgh vkf/kd vkd"kZd okVrs-dkgh vyadkj [kkyhy izek.ks&

1)    Simile   2)Metaphor 3)Personification 4) Alliteration  5) Assonance 6) Onomatopoeia 7) Paradox  8)Hyperbole 9) Transferred epithet 10) Synecdoche 11) Irony 12) Repetition 13) Inversion 14) Ellipsis  15) Euphemism 16) Antithesis.


1)Simile- ¼miek½

     nksu osxosxG;k oLrq] O;Drh ;kaP;kr ,dp xks"V leku vlrs fdaok nk[korkr- R;kyk miek vyadkj vls Eg.krkr-

(An imaginative comparison of two different things which have something in common. A simile always includes the words 'as' , 'like', 'though', 'as if', 'as-as'.

For example –

1)    As playful as a kitten.

2)    As lovely as a flower.

3)    She is as a tall as a tree.


2) Metaphor - ¼:id½

            ,[kknh O;Drh fdaok oLrq gh nql&;k ,[kkn;k O;Drh fdaok oLrqpk e/;s dkYifud lkE; nk[korkr R;kyk :id vyadkj vls Eg.krkr- As, like lkj[ks 'kCn ;k vyadkjkr ulrkr-

(An imaginative expression that refers to someone/something as another person or thing.The words 'as', 'like' are not used in a metaphor.)

For example-

1)    Pond's mosaic of mud and weed.     

2)    Its tongue of fire and flame,

Cannot fly farther.

The pattern made by mud and weeds in the pond are implicitly compared a mosaic.


3) Personification - ¼euq";xq.kkjksi½

     ,[kknh oLrqph d`rh o fopkj gs ek.klklkj[ksp vkgsr vls n'kZforkr R;kyk personification vls Eg.krkr- Eg.ktsp vpsrukr ekuoh xq.k/keZ vlrks-

(Referring to a thing or quality as if they can think and act like a person.)

For example-

1) Flowers danced in the meadow.

2) Jealousy reared its ugly head.


/ouhoj vk/kkfjr vyadkj

4) Alliteration - ¼vuqizkl½

     leku O;atukph iwujko`Rrh ;k vyadkjkr gksrs-[kkyhy mnkgj.kkr w pk iqujko`Rrh >kyh vkgs-

For example-

1)Water water everywhere.

The sound of 'w' is pleasingly repeated.

2) It's tongue of fire and flame cannot fly further.

          ;sFks f ph iqujko`Rrh >kyh vkgs-


5) Assonance- ¼Loj /ouhaph iqujko`Rrh½

     Assonance ;k vyadkjkr Loj /ouhaph iqujko`Rrh gksrs-;kr imperfect rhyme vlrks-

For example-

On that road

She everyday goes.


6) Onomatopoeia- ¼vkWukseWVksihvk½ ¼/ouhps vuqdj.k½

     osxosxG;k vkoktakps vuqdj.k ;k vyadkjkr fnysys vlrs-

For example-

                   And the whoosh whoosh of washing machine.

ojhy okD;kr whoosh whoosh gk vkokt vkgs-


7) Paradox - ¼iWjkMkWDl½

     ;ke/;s v/kZoV dYiuk fdaok gL;kLin fopkj ekaMysys vlrkr-

( Seemingly absurd or contradictory though often true statement.

For example-

                     Let him be rich and weary.

          Two apparently incomplitable ideas are reconcised.


8) Hyperbole - ¼gk;ijcksy½ ¼vfr'k;ksDrh½

     ,[kknh xks"V Qqxowu lkafxryh tkrs fryk vfr'k;ksDrh vyadkj vls Eg.krkr-

( An obvious overstatement)

For example-

                      Out of the eyes of a hundred flowers.


9) Transferred epithet - ¼xq.kfo'ks"k.k½

For example-

1)    A willful shaft, bitter arrow.

2)    To their nest places on Himalaya's breast.


10) Synecdoche - ¼flusDMksd½

     A part is made to represent the whole or vice versa.

For example-

"My cousin hath but killed the godlike speed which throbbed in this white wing."


11) Irony - ¼mijks/k½

     An expression in which the sense is opposite to the words

For example-

1)    Do tell me who I am.

2)    They call me Indian abroad,

But in my own land I don't

Know who I am.


12) Repetition - ¼iqujko`Rrh½

     tsaOgk dforsr ,d vksG iqu%iqUgk ;srs rsaOgk gk vyadkj gksrks-

For example-

                   How could live without you

                   You guard us and feed us

                   How could live without you

                   You give us the breath of life.


13) Inversion - ¼okD;kph myVh jpuk½

          dforsr tsaOgk okD;kph jpuk myVh fnysyh vlrs Eg.ktsp myVkdze fnysyk vlrks] rasOgk gk vyadkj r;kj gksrks-

For example-

                   Helter-skelter the parents run.

                   Home skip the little children


14) Ellipsis - ¼'kCnyksi½

     dforsrhy okD;jpusyk t:j vl.kk&;k 'kCnkapk yksi gksrks rsaOgk gk vyadkj r;kj gksrks-

( the omission of words)


15) Euphemism - ¼;qfQfe>e½ ¼dMq vFkZ xksM 'kCnkauh lkax.ks½

              A soft expression used instead of a harsh one.

For example-

                   Dancing and whirling , the little leaves went,

                   Winter had called them, and they were content

                   Soon fast asleep in their earthy bed

                   The snow laid a coverlet over their heads.

"fast asleep" ikus [kkyh iMyh Eg.kts esyh i.k ej.k gk 'kCn dBksj okVrks Eg.kqu ikua xkM >ksiyh v'kh xksM 'kCnkauh o.kZu dsys vkgs-


16) Antithesis - ¼vWfUVfFkfll½ ¼fojks/k½

          tsaOgk nksu osxosxG;k dYiuk ,d= ;srkr R;kyk antithesis Eg.krkr-

(the exact opposite contrast)

For example-

                   Let him be rich and weary.

Riches- supposed to give comfort

Weariness – lack of comfort.

When two such opposed ideas or terms representing them are brought together it is called antithesis.

♦ Types of the poem♦

1)lyric -¼HkkodkO;½

2) sonnet - ¼pkSnk vksGhaph dfork½

  a) The Italin sonnet.

         Octave – 8 vksGhapa ifgya dMo(rhyme- abba   abba)

    Sextet – 6 vksGhapa nqlja dMoa(rhyme-cde   cde)

c)     English sonnet.

Four lines- rhyme – ab ab cd cd ef ef

3) Ballad - ¼;q/n] e`R;q] izse½

4) Ode – ¼mn~nsf'kdk] O;Drhcn~ny oLrqacn~ny½

5) Elegy - ¼'kksdxhr½

MM) So…..that

            ;sFks fnysY;k nksu okD;kaiSdh ,d okD; dkj.k vlrs o nqljs okD; R;kpk ifj.kke vlrs- v'kh okD;s So…..that  us tksMko;kl lkaxrkr- R;krhy ifgY;k okD;krhy fo'ks"k.k fdaok fdz;kfo'ks"k.kkiqohZ vl.kkjk very ¼fdaok very ;k vFkkZpk vU; 'kCn½ dk<qu rsFks so fyghrkr- ifj.kken'kZd okD;kpk that us lq: gks.kkjk clause d:u ifgY;k okD;kP;k iq<s Bsorkr-

For example-

The girl was very busy planting her seeds. She did not realize the greaty Prince wasd standing behind her.

           ojhy okD;kr busy ;k fdz;kfo'ks"k.kkiqohZ very vk<Grks- R;kps tkxh so fygkok ykxrks- iq<hy dkj.kn'kZd okD;kP;k vkjaHkh that Bsoqu R;kpk clause cuokok ykxrks- Eg.kqu R;kps mRrj &

The girl was so busy planting her seeds that she didn't realize the great Prince was standing behind her. vls gksbZy-


NN) Use 'though'

     fnysY;k nksu fo/kkukaiSdh ,d fo/kku nql&;k fo/kkukrhy fdz;syk ck/kd vlrs] ijarq rh ck/kk gksÅ u nsrk rh fdz;k ?kMrs- v'kkosGh ck/kd B: 'kd.kk&;k fo/kkukP;k clause pk vkjaHk though us d:u nksu okD;s ,d= tksMrkr-

e.g- They won a great victory for him. But still he was not satisfied.

    Though they won a great victory for him, he was not satisfied. vls gksbZy-


OO) Removing- who, which, where, when

     Who – fnysY;k nksu okD;kar ,dkp O;Drhpk mYys[k vlY;kl who pk okij dj.;kr ;srks- ,dk fBdk.kh R;k O;DrhP;k ukek,soth fdaok loZukek,soth who oki:u R;k okD;kiklwu ,d clause r;kj d:u ?ksrkr- rks clause nql&;k okD;krhy R;k ukekiq<s Bsorkr-

e.g- The Prince bullied his subjects. The Prince was short tempered.

          ;sFks nksUgh okD;kar The Prince gh O;Drh leku vkgss- Eg.kqu nql&;k okD;krhy The Prince  P;k tkxh who Bsoqu Who was short tempered. vlk clause r;kj djrk ;sbZy vkf.k rks  clause ifgY;k okD;krhy The prince ;k 'kCnkyk tksMqu fygkok ykxsy- rh vU; dks.kR;kgh O;Drhiq<s fygqu pky.kkj ukgh- Eg.kqu mRrj%

The  Prince, who was short tempered, bullied his subjects. vls gksbZy-

Who us lq: gks.kk&;k adjective cause P;k iqohZ vkf.k 'ksoVh LoYifojke Bsoqu rks osxGk nk[kforkr gs /;kukr Bsokos-

For example –

1) It was the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan.

This community inspired the chipko movement.

► It was the Bishnoi community in Rajasthan who inspired the chipko movement.

2) About 300 years ago there was a ruler in Rajasthan , He wanted to build a palace .

► Abour 300 years ago there was a ruler in Rajasthan who wanted to build a palace.

3) Some suffer from diabetes. The date can be taken even by them.

► The date can be taken even by those who suffer from diabetes


                 WhichfnysY;k nksu okD;kar ,dkp oLrqpk mYys[k vlY;kl ,dk okd;kr R;k oLrq,soth which oki:u clause r;kj d:u ?ksrkr- gk clause nql&;k okD;kr R;k ukekiq<s Bsorkr-

e.g- The little girl offered the Prince a bag of seed . The prince took the bag of seed.

      ;k nksu okD;kr the bag of seed  gh oLrq leku vk<Gsy- ;sFks nql&;k okD;krhy a bag of seed ,soth which oki:u clause r;kj djrkr vkf.k rks ifgY;k okD;krhy the bag of seed yk tksMqu fyghrkr- Eg.kqu R;kps mRrj% The little girl offered the prince a bag of seed which he tool.

For example –

1) South korea planted quick – growing pines on huge areas of hillside. These areas of hillside had suffered from deforestation.

► South korea planted quick – growing pines on huge areas of hillside which had suffered from deforestation.

2) We used to break old soda – water bottles. The bottles had marbles in their necks.

► We used to break old soda – water bottles which  had marbles in their necks.

3) He had converted the waste cattle bones into a medicinal compound. A nerve tonic could be made from the compound.

► He had converted the waste cattle bones into a medicinal compound from which a nerve tonic could be made.

4) Millard opened a drawer. It contained a large variety of sparrows.

► Millard opened a drawer which contained a large variety of sparrows.

5) She dug a winding road. It started from their garden.

► She dug a winding road which  started from their garden.


              Where – tsOgk nksu okD;s where oki:u tksM.;kl lkafxrysyh vlrkr rsOgk nksUgh okD;kar leku vl.kkjs fBdk.k 'kks/krkr- nql&;k okD;krhy fBdk.kk,soth where  oki:u R;k okD;kpk ,d clasue cuforkr- rks clause ifgY;k okD;krhy R;k fBdk.kkiq<s Bsorkr o nksu okD;kaps ,d okD; djrkr- where okijY;keqGs nql&;k okD;krhy fBdk.kn'kZd 'kCn R;k clause e/;s iqUgk fygh.;kph vko';drk ulrs-

e.g- A little girl worked in her small garden.She was planting her seeds in her small gaden.

      ;k nksu okD;kar in her small garden gk fBdk.kn'kZd 'kCnleqg leku vk<Grks- nql&;k okD;krhy R;k 'kCnlewgk,soth where she was planting her seeds vlk Clause r;kj gksbZy- rks ifgY;k okD;krhy garden  iq<s tksMqu mRrj iq<hyizek.ks r;kj gksbZy%& A little girl worked in her small garden where she was planting her seeds. vls gksbZy-

e.g – 1) She went to a special school. She was taught exercises there.

► She went to a special school where  she was taught exercises there. 

2) We reached the ground outside our school compound. We usually played there.

► We reached the ground outside our school compound where we usually played there.


                       when - tsOgk nksu okD;s when oki:u tksM.;kl lkafxrysyh vlrkr rsOgk nksUgh okD;kar dks.krh ?kVuk lqjokrhyk >kyh vkgs gs y{kkr ?;k uarj th ?kVuk lqjokrhyk >kyh vkgs R;k okD;kiq<s  when fygkos iq.kZfojke dk<kos nqljs okD; vkgs rls fygkos- [kkyhy okD;s igk-

1) The nests are almost ready. The females arrive and each chooses one nest.

When the nests are almost ready  the females arrive and each chooses one nest.

2) He returned from Burma .He did a course in zoology.

When he returned from Burma he did a course in zoology.

3) Take the top off the bottle and fizzy bubbles appare.

► When you take the top off the bottle and fizzy bubbles appare.



PP) Change the voice ¼iz;ksx cnyk½

            Change the voice pas nksu izdkj iMrkr- rs [kkyhy izek.ks

1) Active voice - ¼drZjh iz;ksx½

2) Passive voice - ¼deZ.kh iz;ksx½


1) Active voice - ¼drZjh iz;ksx½

       T;k okD;kph lqjokr dR;kZus gksrs rs okD; drZjh iz;ksxkr vlrs- v'kk okD;kr dR;kZyk egRo fnysys vlrs- drkZ okD;kP;k izFke ;srks-

For example –

1) Rama killed Ravana. jkekus jko.kkyk Bkj ekjys-

2) I sent a letter to my father. eh ekÖ;k ofMykauk i= ikBfoys-

ojhy okD;ke/;s Rama o I gs 'kCn drsZ vkgsr- okD;kph lq:okr dR;kZus >kysyh vkgs] Eg.kqu gh nksUgh okD;s drZjh iz;ksxkr vkgsr-


2) Passive voice - ¼deZ.kh iz;ksx½

    T;k okD;kph lqjokr dekZus gksrs o R;k okD;kpk iz;ksx deZ.kh vlrks- g;k okD;kr dekZyk egRo fnysys vlrs-

For example –

1)                Ravana was killed. jko.kkpk o/k >kyk-

2)                My book was stolen. ek>s iqLrd pksjhyk xsys-

ojhy okD;ke/;s Ravana vkf.k My book gs 'kCn deZ vkgsr- okD;kph lq:okr g;k 'kCnkauh >kysyh vkgs o d`rh dks.kh dsyh g;kyk egRo ukgh- ijarq d`rhyk egRo fnysys vkgs- ^jko.kkpk o/k >kyk * gs egRokps vkgs vkf.k dks.kh dsyk gs egRokps ukgh-


♦ Active voice ps  Passive voice okD; r;kj djrkuk [kkyhy fu;e y{kkr Bsok-

1½ izFke fnysY;k okD;krhy drkZ]fdz;kin vkf.k deZ 'kks/kkos-

2½ fdz;kinkl ^dk;* vkf.k ^dks.kkyk* g;k 'kCnkauh iz'u fopkjyk vlrk deZ feGrs-

3½ fdz;kinkl ^dks.k* vkf.k ^dks.kh* g;k 'kCnkauh iz'u fopkjyk vlrk drkZ feGrks-

4½ dekZP;k iq<s to be ps R;k okD;kP;k dkGkuqlkj ;ksX; :i (is,are,was,were) fygkos-

5½ uarj fdz;kinkps frljs :i (past participale) fygkos- (write  ps written, place ps placed)

6½ mjysys loZ 'kCn fdz;kinkP;k frl&;k :ikiq<s fygkosr-

7½ R;kuarj dR;kZph fOnrh;k fygkoh- (by them,by her)

8½ okD;ke/;s usually, generally,beautifully, badly vls fdz;kfo'ks"k.k vkY;kl rs to be P;k :ikiq<s o past participale P;k vfydMsp fygkos-

9½ fo|kF;kZauh 12 dkG pkaxys r;kj djkosr- lk/kk orZekudkG vkf.k lk/kk HkwrdkG ;koj vf/kd Hkj |kok- ;k dkGkrhy udkjkFkhZ o iz'ukFkZd okD;s vR;ar dkGthiqoZd vH;klkohr-

For example –

1)    I eat an apple everyday.►An apple is eaten everyday by me.

2)    I do not eat meat. ► Meat is not eaten by me.

3)    She generally reads English novels.►English novels are generally read by her.

4)    Now-a-days people do not spend money on books.►Now-a-days money is not spent on books

5)    Sawant has beautifully written this novel.►This novel has been beautifully written by sawant.

fVi %& [kkyh loZ dkGkaph deZ.kh iz;ksxkrhy lq=s fnysyh vkgsr- rh y{kkr Bsokohr-

deZ.kh iz;ksxkrhy lq=s % rksaMikB djk-


deZ.kh iz;ksxkrhy okD;

lk/kk orZeku dkG

deZ + am,is,are  + p.p

lk/kk HkqrdkG

deZ + was,were  + p.p

lk/kk Hkfo";dkG

deZ + shall be,will be  + p.p

viq.kZ orZeku dkG

deZ + am,is,are  + being  + p.p

viq.kZ HkqrdkG

deZ + was,were  +  being  + p.p

viq.kZ Hkfo";dkG

deZ.kh iz;ksx djr ukghr-

iq.kZ orZeku dkG

deZ + have been, has been + p.p

iq.kZ HkqrdkG

deZ + had  + been + p.p

iq.kZ Hkfo";dkG

deZ + shall have will has been + been + p.p

lg¸k;dkjh fdz;kins

deZ + lg¸k;dkjh fdz;kin + be  +p.p

vkKkFkhZ okD;s

let  + deZ + be + p.p


[kkyhy ekfgrh okpk %

lk/kk orZekudkG %& passive construction

    lq= % & object  + am,is are + p.p

For example –

1)                I write a novel. ►A novel is written by me. ¼fyghrks½

2)                I do not write a novel.► A novel is not written by me.¼fyghy tkr ukgh-½

fu;e % & 1½  lk/;k orZekudkGkps udkjkFkhZ okD; vlsy vkf.k dR;kZiq<s do not fdaok does not vkY;kl deZ.kh okD; djrkuk do,does dk<kos- QDr not Bsokos-

e.g- 1) She does not eat fish & eggs.►Fish & eggs are not eaten by her.

2) I do not accept your invitation.►Your invitation is not accepted by me.

fu;e % & 2½ iz'ukFkZd okD;kps deZ.kh okD; djrkuk izFke to be ps :i fygkos o uarj deZ fygkos- okD;ke/;s iz'ukokpd 'kCn 'Wh'-question (why,what,when,where,who,which,how.) vlsy rj rksp 'kCn izFke fygkok o uarj to be ps :i fygkos ¼izFke okD; fo/kkukRed djkos o uarj iz'ukFkZd djkos-½  

e.g- 1) Does he commit a sin?►a)He commits a sin.b)Is a sin committd by him. c) A sin is committed by him.

2) Do you call your friends for your birthday?►Are your friends called for your birthday by you?

3) Does she heat milk properly.►Is milk properly heated by her.?


fu;e % &3½ lk/;k HkqrdkGkP;k udkjkFkhZ okD;ke/;s did not gs 'kCn     vlrkr- v'kk okD;kps deZ.kh okD; djrkuk did dk<qu Vkdrkr- dkj.k vki.kkl was vkf.k were gh lg¸k;dkjh fdz;kins feGrkr-

e.g- I did not call Ramesh for party yesterday.

► Ramesh was not called for party by me yesterday.

fu;e % &4½ vkKkFkhZ okD;kpk deZ.kh iz;ksx djrkuk [kkyhy ekfgrh y{kkr Bsokoh-

vkKkFkhZ okD; & Imperative sentences


    T;k okD;ke/;s fouarh]gwdwe]vkKk]lYyk vkf.k lwpuk dsysyh vlrs rs okD; vkKkFkhZ okD; vlrs- vls okD; usgeh fdz;kinkus lq: gksrs vkf.k udkjkFkhZ vlsy rj do not us lq: gksrs- lqpuk vlsy rj let ;k lg¸k;dkjh fdz;kinkus lq: gksrs-

e.g- 1)Bring this table here. 2) Do not bring dirty things in my room.

3) Let's play cricket. 4) Let me tell you this joke.


vkKkFkhZ okD;kps deZ.kh okD; r;kj djrkuk [kkyhy fu;e y{kkr Bsokosr

1½ izFke fdz;kinkl ^dk;* vkf.k ^dks.kkyk* ;k 'kCnkus iz'u fopk:u deZ dk<kos-

2½ rs deZ let 'kCnkiq<s fygkos-

3½ dekZiq<s QDr be gs :i fygkos-

4½ yxsp fdz;kinkps frljs :i fygqu mjysys 'kCn fygkosr-

5½ okD;kph lq:okr do not us >kY;kl do dk<kos vkf.k not iq<s to fygkos-

e.g- 1) Arrest the criminal.► Let this criminal be arrested.

2) Open the door. ►Let the door be opened.

3) Don't speak silly things.►Let silly things be not spoken.

4) Seek your fortune.►Let your fortune be sought.


deZ.kh iz;ksx dlk vksG[kkok\

To be g;k fdz;kinkph ,dq.k ngk :is vkgsr- g;k ngk :ikaiSdh dks.kR;kgh ,dk :ikiq<s fdz;kinkps frljs :i vkys vlrk rs okD; deZ.kh iz;ksxkr vlrsp-

FkksMD;kr %& am,is,are,was,were,being,been,be g;k :ik iq<s fdz;kinkps frljs :i vkY;kl rs okD; deZ.kh iz;ksxkr vlysp ikfgts-

e.g- My book was stolen yesterday.2) She is being taken to hospital.

3) Mangoes are sold in this shop.4)Telgi has been arrested.

5) Many people were killed in the Kargil war.

     ojhy loZ okD;s deZ.kh iz;ksxkr vkgsr- dkj.k R;k okD;kae/;s to be P;k :ikiq<s fdz;kinkps frljs :i vkysys vkgs- vf/kd ekfgrhlkBh [kkyhy to be ph :is o R;kaps vFkZ y{kkr ?;k-

[kkyhy dks"Vdkpk uhV vH;kl djk-

    dkGkps uko

to be ph :is








Hkfo"; dkG

Shall be,will be


viq.kZ dkG






lg¸k;dkjh fdz;kin



,dq.k 10 :is + p.p = deZ.kh iz;ksx


Object : - ¼deZ½ % fdz;kinkl ^dk;* vkf.k ^dks.kkyk* g;k 'kCnkauh iz'u fopkjyk vlrk deZ feGrs- ^dk;* 'kCnkaus ts deZ feGrs R;kl direct object ¼eq[; @ izR;{k deZ½ vls Eg.krkr- gs deZ futhZo vlrs- ^dks.kkyk* 'kCnkus ts R;kl indirect object vls Eg.krkr- gs deZ ltho vlrs- okD;ke/;s 2 desZ vlY;kl dks.kR;kgh ,dk dekZiklwu deZ.kh okD; dsys rjh pkyrs-

For example-

1)    He writes a letter. (what) . 2) She saw me (whom).

                       D.o                                     I.o

3) Father sent them  money.  4) Hema gave me  a flower.

          A . I .o     D .o                          I.o       D.o


deZ.kh iz;ksxkrhy okD;

lk/kk orZekudkG

English is spoken.

lk/kk HkwrdkG

English was spoken.

lk/kk Hkfo";dkG

English will be spoken.

viq.kZ orZekudkG

Tea us being drunk.

viq.kZ HkwrdkG

He was being told a story.

viq.kZ Hkfo";dkG

English will be spoken.

iq.kZ orZekudkG

A letter has been written.

iq.kZ HkwrdkG

A letter had been written.

iq.kZ Hkfo";dkG

A letter will have been written.

lgk¸;dkjh fdz;kins

Hindi can be taught.

vkKkFkhZ okD;

Let her be called.


mi;ksx %& deZ.kh iz;ksxkps mi;ksx [kkyhy izek.ks vkgsr-

1½ ukVhl r;kj dj.kslkBh- 2½ izfdz;k lkax.kslkBh

3½ lqpuk ns.kslkBh       4½ ckrE;akP;k gsM ykbZUl r;kj dj.kslkBh


1½ ukVhl r;kj djrkuk deZ.kh okD;krhy to be ph :is (is, are, was, were, have been, has been, had been.) dk<qu Vkdkohr- deZkiq<s QDr

frljs :i (p.p) fygkos o mjysys 'kCn fygkosr p.p o R;k iq<hy dR;Zkph fOnrh;k fygq u;s-

a)     Booksellers buy & sell old books here.

► Old books are bought & sold here by booksellers.

Notice : Old books bought & sold here.

b)    They sell fresh words here.

► Fresh words are sold here by them.

Notice : Fresh words sold here.

     C) We do not accept cheques.

      ► Cheques are not accepted by them.

Notice : Cheques not accepted.

      d) Smoking strictly prohibited.

       e) Dogs are not allowed.

       f) Wanted a Qualified nurse. ¼tkghjkr½

       g) Wanted a teacher of English. ¼tkghjkr½

orZekui=krhy ckrE;kaph f'k"kZds deZ.kh iz;ksxkr vlrkr- v'kk okD;kr QDr fdz;kinkps frljs :i nsrkr to be ph :is xqIr vlrkr-

1)    Mulla omar driven out of Kandhar.

2)    Transporters strike called off.

For example- active to passive construction.


1) In order to repair a bicycle puncture, the mechanic takes the tube out of the tyre.Then he puts it into a bucket of water. Bubbles of water indicate the location of the picture. He marks it using a piece of chalk and then applies a solution to a good piece of tube and presses it against the spot that he has marked.

► In order to repair a bicycle pucture , the tube is taken out of the tyre by the mechanic.Then it is put by him into a bucket of water. The location of the puncture is indicated by bubbles of water. It is marked by him using a piece of chock & then solution is applied to a good piece of tube,& it is pressed against the spot that has been marked by him.


2)I write a letter.►A letter is written by me.

3) He eats a mango.► A mango is eaten by him.

4) He ate a mango.► A mango was eaten by him.

5) She will eat a mango.► A mango will be eaten by her.

6) He is writing a letter.► A letter is being written by him.

7) He has written a letter.► A letter has been written by him.

8) He had written a letter.► A letter had been written by him.

9) The people praised their Prince.► Their Prince was praised by the people.

10) The king embraced them.► They were embraced by the king.

Passive to active construction.

1) He was rewarede by the jeweler.► The jeweler rewarded him.

2) He and his brothers would be protected by heaven in their hardships.

► Heaven would protect him and his brothers in their hardship.

3) They are guided by the sun or shadows.

► The sun or shadows guide them.

4) It was left at the door by person.► A person left it at the door.

5) He had been transported to  and from school by his father.

► His father had transported him to and from school.


OO) Cleft sentences

1) John wore his best suit to the dance last night.

►It was John that wore best suit to the dance last night.

2) Sonia Gandhi defeated sushma swaraj in the bellari constituency.

►It was sonia Gandhi that defeated sushma swaraj in the bellari constituency.

3) Saddam refused America's proposal last year.

► It was Saddam that refused America's proposal last year.

► It was America's proposal that saddam refused last year.

► It was last year that saddam refused America's proposal.

4) Arundati Roy isd fighting against Narmada project.

► It is Arundati Roy that fighting against Narmada project.

► It is Narmada project that Arundati Roy fighting against.


PP)  Extraposition  sentences

Make cleft sentences

1) To teach her is a delight.

► It is delight to teach her.

  The term extraposition is used for a construction in which a noun clause i.e NCL which functions as subjects is post poand to the end of the main clause. And it is replace by empty subject.

2) What you say to them doesn't matter ?

► It doesn't matter what you say to them.

3) That the dispute has been settled is encouraging.

► It is encouraging that the dispute has been settled.

4) To move his arm causes him conciderable pain.

► It is causes him conciderable pain to his arm.


QQ) Fronting  sentences

1) It is a pleasure to teach her.

► She is pleasure to teach.

2) It is difficult to play a flute.

► A flute is fifficult to play.

3) It is fun to be with sangeeta.

► Sangeeta is fun to be with.

4) It's hard to change the tradition.

► The tradition is hard to change.

5) It is impossible to change her mind.  

► Her mind is impossible to change.

6) It is delightful to lilsten to soft music.

► Soft music is delightful to listen.

7) It is sootheing watch mild colours.

► Mild colours is sootheing watch.


RR)  Post poning  sentences

1) The time to think about many things has come.

► The time has come to think about many things.

2) A meeting of all taxpayers was held.

► A meeting was held of all taxpayers.

3) I have less time than I used to have  now a days.

► I have less time now a days than I used to have.

4) The magazines that have interesting articalse sell well.

► The magazines sell well that have interesting articalse.


SS) Focusing sentences

♦ Focusing the underlined expression using 'what'.

1)  He promised me a job in his office.

► What he promised me was a job in his office.

2) He proposes to call a meeting.

► What he proposes is to call a meeting.

3) They demanded his resignation.

► What they demanded was his resignation.


TT) Co - ordination

       Co – ordination typically shown by the conjunction such as- and , or, as well as, but co- ordination clause can be a combination of two clasuses to main clauses or two phrases or two words.

Mcl – Main clause

Cj – Conjunction

Np – Noun phrase

Ajp – Adjective phrase

              Mcl                                Mcl

1{[You pull the plug], [I'll scream]}

► co –ordination Clause

               Mcl                         Cj        Mcl

2) {[You pull the plug] and [I'll scream]}

► Co – ordination Clause

                                          Np                 Cj     Np

3) For breakfast I had {[a cup of tea] and [a rall]}

► Co – ordination Clause

               Np            Cj        Np

4) {[what I say] and [what I do]} are two different things.

► Co – ordination Clause

                                 Np       Cj       Np

5) I love Danish {[Butter] and [cheese]}

► Co – ordination Clause

                                    Ajp       Cj      Ajp

6) You can pay by {[cheque] or [incash]}

► Co – ordination Clause

                  Mcl             Cj            Mcl

7) {[Paul is stupid] but [I rather like him]}

► Co – ordination Clause

8) He took great dislike to me [although he did his best to cohesive it]

► Sub – ordination Clause

                                                Mcl                                      Cj                    Mcl

9) {[People enjoy me for not having a telephone] or [The regard me as accentire]}

► Co – ordination Clause

                               Ajp            Cj           Ajp

10) He is {[very friendly] and [willing to help]}

► Co – ordination Clause

                                      Np               Cj        Np

11) Our team play in {[red shirts] and [white shooes]}

► Co – ordination Clause

12) The calese[which was built in the 12th century] has dominated the valley ever sense.

► Sub – ordination Clause




Link list
Story writing
Phrases, Expressions & Sayings